Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 16, Issue 5, pp 1459–1470 | Cite as

Edge and shape effects on ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) species richness and composition in forest fragments

ORIGINAL PAPER

Abstract

In this paper, we tested four hypotheses relative to edge and shape effects on ant communities: (i) forest edges have lower species richness than the remnant core; (ii) species richness increases with distance from the edge; (iii) irregularly shaped remnants have lower species richness than more regular remnants; (iv) there is a higher similarity of species composition between edge and core in irregular than in regular remnants. We sampled litter ant communities on the edge and core of ten remnants, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Species richness was larger at the forest core than at the edges, although did not increase with distance from the edge. Species richness did not vary with shape complexity. The similarity of species composition between edge and core showed a decreasing trend with remnant area, and did not vary with shape complexity. The observed differences of species richness between forest core and edge may be due to higher harshness of edges, caused by environmental changes. The absence of relationship between species richness and distance from the edge might indicate the range of edge effects, which would be smaller than the smallest distance of core sampled. Therefore, edges would affect litter-dwelling ant species richness in a distance smaller than 50 m. The observation of species composition allowed us to notice an effect of fragmentation that would not be noticed if we were considering only species richness. Edge may serve as step to generalist species, which may use it to colonise forest remnants. Furthermore, small remnants are more colonisation-prone by such species, and have a more homogeneous species composition than large remnants.

Keywords

Edge effects Formicidae Habitat fragmentation Shape effects  Species richness Tropical rain forest 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Entomologia, Departamento de Biologia AnimalUniversidade Federal de ViçosaViçosaBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Biologia GeralUniversidade Federal de ViçosaViçosaBrazil

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