Monitoring and Evaluation of Reef Protected Areas by Local Fishers in the Philippines: Tightening the Adaptive Management Cycle Article Received: 31 March 2004 Accepted: 10 November 2004 DOI:
Cite this article as: Uychiaoco, A., Arceo, H., Green, S. et al. Biodivers Conserv (2005) 14: 2775. doi:10.1007/s10531-005-8414-x Abstract
Monitoring by local community managers tightens the adaptive management cycle by linking management more closely with its evaluation, so management actions become more responsive to the field situation. Local community volunteers, usually fishers, managing coral reef protected areas in the Philippines used simple methods (e.g. snorkeling fish visual census) to periodically monitor and evaluate reef protection together with professional marine biologists. Except for estimates of hard coral, data collected by local volunteers were not significantly correlated with data collected by biologists (specifically abundance estimates of sand, major reef fish carnivores, and fish herbivores). Community-collected fish data generally have higher variance and show higher abundances than biologist-collected data. Nonetheless, though the data was less precise, the locally based monitoring identified or confirmed the need for management actions that were generic in nature (e.g. stronger enforcement, organizational strengthening, etc.). The locally based monitoring also encouraged cooperation among stakeholders and prompted a management response. Little time and financing is required after initial establishment and replication has been increasing. However, sustainability depends upon the communities’ perceived added-value of undertaking the monitoring and input from a paid and/or more committed local person (e.g. government) who occasionally conducts monitoring himself/herself and supervises the community monitoring. Management impact depends heavily upon good integration with active management interventions outside the monitoring effort
per se Keywords Community Locally-based monitoring Management Participatory monitoring Philippines Protected Reef References Barrett, N., Edgar, G., Morton, A. 2002Monitoring of Tasmanian Inshore Reef Ecosystems. An Assessment of The Potential for Volunteer Monitoring Programs and a Summary of Changes within the Maria Island Marine Reserve from 1992–2001 Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, University of Tasmania Australia Google Scholar
E. Brown. 1999. Long term monitoring of coral reefs on MauiHawai` and the applicability of volunteers. In: J.E.M. Grober-Dunsmore. (eds). East-West Centre and Hawai` Department of Land and Natural Resources. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA pp. 131--146
Bryant, D., Burke, L., McManus, J., Spalding, M. 1998Reefs at Risk: A Map-based Indicator of Threats to the World's Coral Reefs World Resources Institute Washington, DC, USA Google Scholar Burke, L., Selig, E., Spalding, M. 2002Reefs at Risk in Southeast Asia World Resources Institute Washington, DC, USA Google Scholar Castaneda, P.G., Miclat, R.I. 1982 The municipal coral reef park in the Philippines Gomez, E.D. Birkeland, C.E. Buddemeier, R.W. Johannes, R.E. Marsh, J.A., Jr. Tsuda, R.T. eds. The Reef and Man, Proceedings of the Fourth International Coral Reef SymposiumManilaPhilippines, 18–22 May 1981 Marine Sciences Center, University of the Philippines Quezon City Philippines 283 285 Google Scholar Coral Reef Information Network of the Philippines (Philreefs) 2003Philippine Coral Reefs through Time: Workshop Proceedings. Second Atlas of Philippine. Coral Reefs Series. Coral Reef Information Network of the Philippines (PhilReefs) University of the Philippines Marine Science Institute Quezon City, Philippines, and the Marine Parks Center, Tokyo, Japan Google Scholar
Crawford B.R., Balgos B.M. and Pagdilao C.R. 2000. Community-based marine sanctuaries in the Philippines: A report on focus group discussions. Coastal Management Report No. 2224. PCAMRD Book Series No. 30. Coastal Resource CenterUniversity of Rhode IslandNarragansettRhode Island, USA, and Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development. Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.
Danielsen F., Jensen A.E., Alviola P.A., Balete D.S., Mendoza M.M., Tagtag A., Custodio C. and Enghoff M. 2005. Does monitoring matter? A quantitative assessment of management decisions from locally-based monitoring of protected areas. Biodivers. Conserv. 14: 2633–2652.
Google Scholar Darwall, W.R., Dulvy, N.K. 1996 An evaluation of the suitability of non-specialist volunteer researchers for coral reef fish surveys. Mafia IslandTanzania – a case study Biol. Conserv. 78 223 231 CrossRef Google Scholar English, S. Wilkinson, C. Baker, V. eds. 1994Survey manual for tropical marine resources. Australian Institute of Marine Science Townsville Australia Google Scholar Hill, J. 2004Implementing Reef Check as a Long-Term Monitoring Program on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia Department of Environment and Natural Resources Quezon City, Philippines Google Scholar Hodgson, G. 1997Reef Check Survey Instruction Manual (1997 version) Reef Check Foundation Hong Kong Google Scholar Keller, B.D. 2002 Monitoring protected zones in the Florida Keys Volunt. Monit. 14 18 19 Google Scholar Lang, J.G. 2002 Designing the ocean conservancy's reef monitoring program Volunt. Monit. 14 14 22 Google Scholar McManus, J.W., Ablan, M.C.A., Vergara, S.G., Vallejo, B.M., Menez, L.A.B., Reyes, K.P.K., Gorospe, M.L.G., Halmarick, L. 1997ReefBase Aquanaut Survey Manual International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management Makati, Philippines Google Scholar Miller, I.R., De’ath, G. 1996 Effects of training on observer performance in assessing benthic cover by means of the manta tow technique Mar. Freshwater Res. 47 19 26 Google Scholar Mumby, P.J., Harborne, A.R., Raines, P.S., Ridley, J.M. 1995 A critical assessment of data derived from Coral Cay Conservation volunteers Bull. Marine Sci. 56 737 751 Google Scholar
Musso B. and Inglis G. 1998. Developing Reliable Coral Reef Monitoring Programs for Marine Tourism Operators and Community Volunteers. CRC Reef Research Centre Technical Report No. 24. CRC Reef Research Centre, Townsville, Australia, pp. 134.
Obura, D.O. 2001 Participatory monitoring of shallow tropical marine fisheries by artisanal fishers in DianiKenya Bull. Mar. Sci. 69 777 792 Google Scholar Obura, D., Wells, S., Church, J., Horrill, C. 2002 Monitoring of fish and fish catches by local fishermen in Kenya and Tanzania Mar. Freshwater Res. 53 215 222 CrossRef Google Scholar Pattengill-Semmens, C.V., Semmens, B.X. 1998 Fish census data generated by non-experts in the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary J. Gulf Mexico Sci. 2 196 207 Google Scholar
Pollnac R.B. and Crawford B.R. 2000. Discovering factors that influence the success of community-based marine protected areas in the Visayas, Philippines. Coastal Management Report No. 2229. PCAMRD Book Series No. 33.Coastal Resource Center, University of Rhode Island and Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development, Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA and Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.
Poulsen, M.K., Luanglath, K. 2005 Projects comeprojects go: Lessons from participatory monitoring in southern Laos Biodivers. Conserv 14 2591 2610 Google Scholar Roberts, C.M., Colin, J.M., Veron, J.E.N., Hawkins, J.P., Allen, G.R., McAllister, D.E., Mittermeier, C.G., Schueller, F.W., Spalding, M., Wells, F., Vynne, C., Werner, T.B. 2002 Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reefs Science 295 1280 1284 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Roxburgh, T. 2000 Checking Reef Check in Tanzania Reef Encounter 27 21 Google Scholar Schmitt, E.F., Sullivan, K.M. 1996 Analysis of a volunteer method for collecting fish presence and abundance data in the Florida Keys Bull. Marine Sci. 59 401 416 Google Scholar
Uychiaoco Tiu A.J. Unpublished. Monitoring and Evaluation of Coral Reef Fishery Reserves with Local Fishers in the Philippines. Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook, New York, U.S.A.
Uychiaoco, A.J., Aliño, P.M., Dantis, A.L. 2000 A Synoptic Survey of Initiatives in Philippine Coastal Management Coast. Manage. (Washington) 28 55 63 Google Scholar Uychiaoco, A.J., Green, S.J., De la Cruz, M.T., Gaite, P.A., Arceo, H.O., Aliño, P.M., White, A.T. 2001Coral Reef Monitoring for Management Department of Environment and Natural Resources/USAID Coastal Resource Management ProjectCebuPhilippines and Department of Agriculture Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources/ADB Fisheries Resource Management Project Quezon City, Philippines Google Scholar White, A.T. 1993Summary Field Report: Coral Reef Surveys for Conservation in MabiniBatangas, Philippines. Earthwatch Expedition to the Philippines, May 1–10, 1993 Haribon Foundation and the Coastal Resources Center of the University of Rhode Island Colombo 17 Google Scholar White, A.T., Calumpong, H. 1993 `Saving Tubbataha Reefs’, Earthwatch Expedition to the Philippines ’92 Silliman J. 36 77 105 Google Scholar White, A.T., Christie, P. 2000 Conclusion Coast. Manage. (Washington) 28 119 122 Google Scholar White, A.T., Christie, P., Divinagracia, M.F. 1999Summary Field Report: Coral Reef Surveys for Conservation in Southwest Bohol, Earthwatch Expedition to the Philippines, May 1–10 and 13–22, 1999 Coastal Resource Management Project and the Sulu Fund for Marine Conservation Foundation, Inc. Cebu City, Philippines 79 Google Scholar