Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 14, Issue 11, pp 2775–2794 | Cite as

Monitoring and Evaluation of Reef Protected Areas by Local Fishers in the Philippines: Tightening the Adaptive Management Cycle

  • Andre J. Uychiaoco
  • Hazel O. Arceo
  • Stuart J. Green
  • Margarita T. De La Cruz
  • Paulyn A. Gaite
  • Porfirio M. Aliño
Article

Abstract

Monitoring by local community managers tightens the adaptive management cycle by linking management more closely with its evaluation, so management actions become more responsive to the field situation. Local community volunteers, usually fishers, managing coral reef protected areas in the Philippines used simple methods (e.g. snorkeling fish visual census) to periodically monitor and evaluate reef protection together with professional marine biologists. Except for estimates of hard coral, data collected by local volunteers were not significantly correlated with data collected by biologists (specifically abundance estimates of sand, major reef fish carnivores, and fish herbivores). Community-collected fish data generally have higher variance and show higher abundances than biologist-collected data. Nonetheless, though the data was less precise, the locally based monitoring identified or confirmed the need for management actions that were generic in nature (e.g. stronger enforcement, organizational strengthening, etc.). The locally based monitoring also encouraged cooperation among stakeholders and prompted a management response. Little time and financing is required after initial establishment and replication has been increasing. However, sustainability depends upon the communities’ perceived added-value of undertaking the monitoring and input from a paid and/or more committed local person (e.g. government) who occasionally conducts monitoring himself/herself and supervises the community monitoring. Management impact depends heavily upon good integration with active management interventions outside the monitoring effort per se

Keywords

Community Locally-based monitoring Management Participatory monitoring Philippines Protected Reef 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barrett, N., Edgar, G., Morton, A. 2002Monitoring of Tasmanian Inshore Reef Ecosystems. An Assessment of The Potential for Volunteer Monitoring Programs and a Summary of Changes within the Maria Island Marine Reserve from 1992–2001Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, University of TasmaniaAustraliaGoogle Scholar
  2. E. Brown. 1999. Long term monitoring of coral reefs on MauiHawai` and the applicability of volunteers. In: J.E.M. Grober-Dunsmore. (eds). East-West Centre and Hawai` Department of Land and Natural Resources. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA pp. 131--146Google Scholar
  3. Bryant, D., Burke, L., McManus, J., Spalding, M. 1998Reefs at Risk: A Map-based Indicator of Threats to the World's Coral ReefsWorld Resources InstituteWashington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  4. Burke, L., Selig, E., Spalding, M. 2002Reefs at Risk in Southeast AsiaWorld Resources InstituteWashington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  5. Castaneda, P.G., Miclat, R.I. 1982

    The municipal coral reef park in the Philippines

    Gomez, E.D.Birkeland, C.E.Buddemeier, R.W.Johannes, R.E.Marsh, J.A.,Jr.Tsuda, R.T. eds. The Reef and Man, Proceedings of the Fourth International Coral Reef SymposiumManilaPhilippines, 18–22 May 1981Marine Sciences Center, University of the PhilippinesQuezon City Philippines283285
    Google Scholar
  6. Coral Reef Information Network of the Philippines (Philreefs)2003Philippine Coral Reefs through Time: Workshop Proceedings. Second Atlas of Philippine. Coral Reefs Series. Coral Reef Information Network of the Philippines (PhilReefs)University of the Philippines Marine Science InstituteQuezon City, Philippines, and the Marine Parks Center, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  7. Crawford B.R., Balgos B.M. and Pagdilao C.R. 2000. Community-based marine sanctuaries in the Philippines: A report on focus group discussions. Coastal Management Report No. 2224. PCAMRD Book Series No. 30. Coastal Resource CenterUniversity of Rhode IslandNarragansettRhode Island, USA, and Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development. Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.Google Scholar
  8. Danielsen F., Jensen A.E., Alviola P.A., Balete D.S., Mendoza M.M., Tagtag A., Custodio C. and Enghoff M. 2005. Does monitoring matter? A quantitative assessment of management decisions from locally-based monitoring of protected areas. Biodivers. Conserv. 14: 2633–2652.Google Scholar
  9. Darwall, W.R., Dulvy, N.K. 1996An evaluation of the suitability of non-specialist volunteer researchers for coral reef fish surveys. Mafia IslandTanzania – a case studyBiol. Conserv.78223231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. English, S.Wilkinson, C.Baker, V. eds. 1994Survey manual for tropical marine resources. Australian Institute of Marine ScienceTownsvilleAustraliaGoogle Scholar
  11. Hill, J. 2004Implementing Reef Check as a Long-Term Monitoring Program on the Great Barrier Reef, AustraliaDepartment of Environment and Natural ResourcesQuezon City, Philippines2nd International Tropical Marine Ecosystem Management Symposium.Google Scholar
  12. Hodgson, G. 1997Reef Check Survey Instruction Manual (1997 version)Reef Check FoundationHong Kongwww.reefcheck.org.Google Scholar
  13. Keller, B.D. 2002Monitoring protected zones in the Florida KeysVolunt. Monit.141819Google Scholar
  14. Lang, J.G. 2002Designing the ocean conservancy's reef monitoring programVolunt. Monit.141422Google Scholar
  15. McManus, J.W., Ablan, M.C.A., Vergara, S.G., Vallejo, B.M., Menez, L.A.B., Reyes, K.P.K., Gorospe, M.L.G., Halmarick, L. 1997ReefBase Aquanaut Survey ManualInternational Center for Living Aquatic Resources ManagementMakati, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  16. Miller, I.R., De’ath, G. 1996Effects of training on observer performance in assessing benthic cover by means of the manta tow techniqueMar. Freshwater Res.471926Google Scholar
  17. Mumby, P.J., Harborne, A.R., Raines, P.S., Ridley, J.M. 1995A critical assessment of data derived from Coral Cay Conservation volunteersBull. Marine Sci.56737751Google Scholar
  18. Musso B. and Inglis G. 1998. Developing Reliable Coral Reef Monitoring Programs for Marine Tourism Operators and Community Volunteers. CRC Reef Research Centre Technical Report No. 24. CRC Reef Research Centre, Townsville, Australia, pp. 134.Google Scholar
  19. Obura, D.O. 2001Participatory monitoring of shallow tropical marine fisheries by artisanal fishers in DianiKenyaBull. Mar. Sci.69777792Google Scholar
  20. Obura, D., Wells, S., Church, J., Horrill, C. 2002Monitoring of fish and fish catches by local fishermen in Kenya and TanzaniaMar. Freshwater Res.53215222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pattengill-Semmens, C.V., Semmens, B.X. 1998Fish census data generated by non-experts in the Flower Garden Banks National Marine SanctuaryJ. Gulf Mexico Sci.2196207Google Scholar
  22. Pollnac R.B. and Crawford B.R. 2000. Discovering factors that influence the success of community-based marine protected areas in the Visayas, Philippines. Coastal Management Report No. 2229. PCAMRD Book Series No. 33.Coastal Resource Center, University of Rhode Island and Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development, Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA and Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.Google Scholar
  23. Poulsen, M.K., Luanglath, K. 2005Projects comeprojects go: Lessons from participatory monitoring in southern LaosBiodivers. Conserv1425912610Google Scholar
  24. Roberts, C.M., Colin, J.M., Veron, J.E.N., Hawkins, J.P., Allen, G.R., McAllister, D.E., Mittermeier, C.G., Schueller, F.W., Spalding, M., Wells, F., Vynne, C., Werner, T.B. 2002Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reefsScience29512801284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Roxburgh, T. 2000Checking Reef Check in TanzaniaReef Encounter2721Google Scholar
  26. Schmitt, E.F., Sullivan, K.M. 1996Analysis of a volunteer method for collecting fish presence and abundance data in the Florida KeysBull. Marine Sci.59401416Google Scholar
  27. Uychiaoco Tiu A.J. Unpublished. Monitoring and Evaluation of Coral Reef Fishery Reserves with Local Fishers in the Philippines. Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  28. Uychiaoco, A.J., Aliño, P.M., Dantis, A.L. 2000A Synoptic Survey of Initiatives in Philippine Coastal ManagementCoast. Manage. (Washington)285563Google Scholar
  29. Uychiaoco, A.J., Green, S.J., De la Cruz, M.T., Gaite, P.A., Arceo, H.O., Aliño, P.M., White, A.T. 2001Coral Reef Monitoring for ManagementDepartment of Environment and Natural Resources/USAID Coastal Resource Management ProjectCebuPhilippines and Department of Agriculture Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources/ADB Fisheries Resource Management ProjectQuezon City, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  30. White, A.T. 1993Summary Field Report: Coral Reef Surveys for Conservation in MabiniBatangas, Philippines. Earthwatch Expedition to the Philippines, May 1–10, 1993Haribon Foundation and the Coastal Resources Center of the University of Rhode IslandColombo17Google Scholar
  31. White, A.T., Calumpong, H. 1993`Saving Tubbataha Reefs’, Earthwatch Expedition to the Philippines ’92Silliman J.3677105Google Scholar
  32. White, A.T., Christie, P. 2000ConclusionCoast. Manage. (Washington)28119122Google Scholar
  33. White, A.T., Christie, P., Divinagracia, M.F. 1999Summary Field Report: Coral Reef Surveys for Conservation in Southwest Bohol, Earthwatch Expedition to the Philippines, May 1–10 and 13–22, 1999Coastal Resource Management Project and the Sulu Fund for Marine Conservation Foundation, Inc.Cebu City, Philippines79Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andre J. Uychiaoco
    • 1
  • Hazel O. Arceo
    • 1
  • Stuart J. Green
    • 2
  • Margarita T. De La Cruz
    • 3
  • Paulyn A. Gaite
    • 1
  • Porfirio M. Aliño
    • 1
  1. 1.The Marine Science InstituteUniversity of the PhilippinesDiliman, Quezon CityPhilippines
  2. 2.Corner Santan & IlangPajak, Lapu-Lapu City, Mactan IslandPhilippines
  3. 3.Philippines and Guiuan Development Foundation, Inc.University of the Philippines in the Visayas-Tacloban CollegeTacloban CityPhilippines

Personalised recommendations