Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 1421–1432

Have recent changes in forest structure reduced the Estonian black stork Ciconia nigra population?

Article

Abstract

The black stork Ciconia nigra is listed as a focal species for guiding forest management in Estonia, where forestry has recently intensified and the stork population has suffered a twofold decline. We explored a possible link between the decline of the population and man-induced changes in forest structure, by analysing nesting of the species in relation to forest cover, edge effects and stand structure. Although the storks had distinct habitat preferences (old remote stands near rivers and a certain distance far from ecotones in well-forested landscapes), these were hardly reflected in site re-occupancy and productivity. Therefore, changes in forest structure are probably not responsible for the population decline, although preferences for specific forest environments may limit the range of potential nest sites. The results indicated that edge avoidance cannot be considered a species-specific feature over large areas and clear habitat preferences are not necessarily related with the present success of a population. We also suggest that lists of focal species should be regularly updated and validated in the field.

Keywords

Black stork Focal species Forest fragmentation Habitat selection Old growth Population decline Productivity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Angelstam, P., Roberge, J.-M., Lõhmus, A., Bergmanis, M., Brazaitis, G., Breuss, M.,  et al. 2004Habitat suitability modelling and focal species – a review of habitat parameters for forest birds in the Baltic Sea regionEcological Bulletins51427454Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Askins, R.A., Philbrick, M.J., Sugeno, D.S. 1987Relationship between the regional abundance of forest and the composition of forest bird communitiesBiological Conservation39129152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bender, D.J., Contreras, T.A., Fahrig, L. 1998Habitat loss and population decline: a meta-analysis of the patch size effectEcology79517533Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    BirdLife International/European Bird Census Council2000European Bird Populations: Estimates and TrendsBirdLife InternationalCambridgeUKGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clark, R.G., Shutler, D. 1999Avian habitat selection: pattern from process in nest-site use by ducks?Ecology80272287Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cramp, S.Simmons, K.E.L. eds. 1977The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Vol. 1.Oxford University PressOxfordUKGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cieslak, M. 1988Nest sites of black stork in Lasy JanowskieProvTarnobrzeg. Notatki Ornitologiczne29227231Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Del Hoyo, J.Elliott, A.Sargatal, J. eds. 1992Handbook of the Birds of the WorldVol. 1.Lynx EditionsBarcelonaSpainGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Drobelis, E. 1993On the biology and protection of the black stork (Ciconia nigra L.) in LithuaniaActa Ornithologica Lituanica7–89499Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Flashpohler, D.J., Temple, S.A., Rosenfield, R.N. 2001Species-specific edge effects on nest success and breeding bird density in a forested landscapeEcological Applications113246Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hunter, M.L.,Jr. eds. 1999Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest EcosystemsCambridge University PressCambridgeUKGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ivanovsky, V.V. 1990

    Status of the black stork population in the Vitebsk region in 1983–1988

    Storks: Distribution, Ecology, ProtectionNavuka i TehnikaMinskByelorussia206211(in Russian).
    Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lambeck, R.J. 1997Focal species: a multi-species umbrella for nature conservationConservation Biology11849856Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lindenmayer, D.B., Manning, A.D., Smith, P.L., Possingham, H.P., Fischer, J., Oliver, I.,  et al. 2002The focal-species approach and landscape restoration: a critiqueConservation Biology16338345Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lõhmus, A. 2002The lack of old-growth forest – a threat to Estonian biodiversityProceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. Biology. Ecology51138144Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lõhmus A. 2003. Habitat preferences and habitat quality for birds of prey: from principles to applications. Dissertationes Biologicae Universitatis Tartuensis 78. Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lõhmus, A., Sellis, U. 2001Foraging habitats of the black stork in EstoniaHirundo14109112Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lõhmus A. and Sellis U. Nest trees – a limiting factor for the black stork in Estonia. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Black Stork Conference. Forneau Saint-Michel, Belgium in-press.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Malan, G., Robinson, E.R. 2001Nest-site selection by black sparrowhawks Accipiter melanoleucus: Implications for managing exotic pulpwood and sawlog forests in South AfricaEnvironmental Management28195205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McCallum, D.A., Gehlbach, F.R. 1988Nest-site preferences of flammulated owls in western New MexicoCondor90653661Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    McCollin, D. 1998Forest edges and habitat selection in birds: a functional approachEcography21247260Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Meffe, G.K., Carroll, C.R. 1994Principles of Conservation BiologySinauer AssociatesSunderlandMassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Newton, I. 1979Population Ecology of RaptorsPoyserBerkhamstedUKGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Petrinš A.J. 1986. Some characteristics of the location of black stork nests, and their importance for the construction of artificial nests. In: Abstracts of the 9th Ornithological Conference of the Soviet Union, Vol. 2. Leningrad, pp. 141–142 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pojer, F. 1996

    The black stork in Czech Republic: present status and ecology

    2nd International Conference on the Black Stork, AbstractsADENEXMéridaSpainp. 36.
    Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Profus, P. 1994

    Black stork, Ciconia nigra

    Tucker, G.M.Heath, M.F. eds. Birds in Europe: Their Conservation StatusBirdLife InternationalCambridgeUK9899
    Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rosenvald, R., Lõhmus, A. 2003Nesting of the black stork (Ciconia nigra) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in relation to forest managementForest Ecology and Management185217223Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sackl, P. 1993Aktuelle Situation, Reproduktion und Habitatansprüche des SchwarzstorchsSchriftenreihe für Umwelt und Naturschutz im Kreis Minden-Lübecke25463Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sellis, U. 2000Will the black stork remain to breed in Estonia?Hirundo131930Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sergio, F., Pedrini, P., Marchesi, L. 2003Spatio-temporal shifts in gradients of habitat quality for an opportunistic avian predatorEcography26243255Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sisk, T.D., Margules, C.R. 1993

    Habitat edges and restoration: methods for quantifying edge effects and predicting the results of restoration efforts

    Saunders, D.A.Hobbs, R.J.Ehrlich, P. eds. Nature Conservation 3: Reconstruction of Fragmented EcosystemsSurrey Beatty & SonsSydney, Australia5769
    Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Skuja, S., Budrys, R.R. 1999Nesting sites of black stork, lesser spotted eagle and common buzzard and their nest exchange in the forests of northnorth-east and central LithuaniaBaltic Forestry56774Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Strazds, M., Lipsbergs, J., Petrinš, A. 1990

    Black stork in Latvia – numbers, distribution and ecology

    Baltic Birds 5, Vol. 2.ZinatneRigaLatvia174179
    Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Strazds, M., Van den Bossche, W., Sackl, P., Tischechkin, A. 1996a

    Population trends of the black stork in Europe

    2nd International Conference on the Black Stork, AbstractsADENEXMéridaSpainp. 31.
    Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Strazds, M., Meiers, H., Petrinš, A. 1996b

    Analysis of ecological conditions of breeding habitat of the black stork in Latvia

    2nd International Conference on the Black Stork, AbstractsADENEXMéridaSpainp. 62.
    Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sutherland, W.J. 2000The conservation Handbook: ResearchManagement and PolicyBlackwell ScienceOxfordUKGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Väli, Ü., Treinys, R., Lõhmus, A. 2004Geographic variation in macrohabitat use and preferences of the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarinaIbis146661671Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Viilup, Ü. 2000

    Forest resources

    Yearbook Forest 2000.Metsakaitse- ja MetsauuenduskeskusTartuEstonia138
    Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Villard, M.-A. 1998On forest-interior species, edge avoidancearea sensitivity, and dogmas in avian conservationAuk115801805Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wright, S.P. 1992Adjusted P-values for simultaneous inferenceBiometrics4810051013Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Zoology and Hydrobiology, Centre of Basic and Applied EcologyUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia
  2. 2.Estonian Ornithological SocietyTartuEstonia
  3. 3.Faculty of ForestryEstonian Agricultural UniversityTartuEstonia

Personalised recommendations