Advertisement

Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 14, Issue 14, pp 3487–3496 | Cite as

The Impacts of the Pollen of Insect-resistant Transgenic Cotton on Honeybees

  • Biao Liu
  • ChongRen XuEmail author
  • Fengming Yan
  • Ruizhong Gong
Article

Abstract

Transgenic cotton containing a synthetic version of the insecticidal toxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki has been planted in China in a large scale and may have adverse impacts on honeybees. The pollens of the transgenic cotton and the non-transgenic parental cotton were collected and their impacts on worker bees were tested. Experimental results showed that the transgenic cotton pollen had no oral acute toxic effects on worker bees. No significant difference was observed in the superoxide dismutases activity and the longevity of worker bees fed with diets containing the transgenic cotton pollen or non-transgenic parental cotton pollen. The results of our experiment indicate that the transgenic cotton has no direct adverse impacts on honeybees. Further work needs to be carried out to evaluate the long-term and indirect impacts of the transgenic cotton on honeybees.

Keywords

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Honeybee Impact Pollen Transgenic cotton 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anonymous. 2001. Bt plant-incorporated protectants October 15, 2001 Biopesticides Registration Action DocumentUnited States Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/oppbppd1/biopesticides/otherdocs/bt_brad2/3%20ecological.pdf
  2. Arpaia, S. 1996Ecological impacts of Bt-transgenic plants: 1. assessing possible effects of CryIIIB on honey bee (Apis melliferaL.) coloniesJ. Genet. Breed.50315319Google Scholar
  3. Bai, S.F., Niu, Y.Z., Zhang, Y.G., Guo, B.D., Huang, H.L., Wang, J.X., Sun, Y. 2001Inserted exogenous gene effect on cotton isoenzymeJ. Shanxi. Agric. Univ.21239240(in Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. Benedict, J.H., Sachs, E.S., Altman, D.W., Deaton, W.R., Kohel, R.J., Ring, D.R., Berberich, S.A. 1996Field performance of cottons expressing transgenic CryIA insecticidal proteins for resistance to Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)J. Econ. Entomol.89230238Google Scholar
  5. Chen, S.L. 2001The Apicultural Science in ChinaAgricultural Press of ChinaBeijing, China541580(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  6. Chen, S., Wu, J.Y., He, X.L., Huang, J.Q., Zhou, B.L., Zhang, R.X. 1997Quantification using ELISA of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein expressed in the tissue of transgenic insect-resistant cottonJiangsu J. Agric. Sci.13154156(in Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. Cui, H.Z., Guo, S.D. 2001Bt insecticidal crystal proteins and the Bt genesJia, S.R.Guo, S.D.An, D.C. eds. Transgenic CottonScience PressBeijing1529Google Scholar
  8. Girard, C., Picard-Nizou, A.L., Grallien, E., Zaccomer, B., Jouanin, L., Pham-Delegue, M.H. 1998Effects of proteinase inhibitor ingestion on survival, learning abilities and digestive proteinases of the honeybeeTransgenic Res.7239246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Glare T. and O’Callaghan M. 2000. Bacillus thuringiensis: Biology, Ecology and Safety. John Willey & Sons, Ltd., pp. 27–40.Google Scholar
  10. Hilbeck, A., Baumgartner, M., Fried, P.M., Bigler, F. 1998Effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn-fed prey on mortality and development time of immature Chrysoperla carnea (Nueroptera: Chrysopidae)Environ. Entomol.27480487Google Scholar
  11. James C. 2002. Global Status of Commercialized Transgenic Crops: 2002. ISAAA Briefs No. 27. ISAAA, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  12. Liu, B., Xu, C.R. 2003Research progress on the impacts of transgenic resistant plants on pollinating beesActa Ecol. Sin.23946955(in Chinese)Google Scholar
  13. Liu, B., Xue, D.Y. 1998The resistance to biotechnology in Euro-America and its lessonsRural Eco-Environ.144649(in Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. Losey, J.E., Rayor, L.S., Carter, M.E. 1999Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvaeNature399214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Malone, L.A., Burgess, E.P.J., Gatehouse, H.S., Voisey, C.R., Tregidga, E.L., Philip, B.A. 2001Effects of ingestion of a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin and a trypsin inhibitor on honey bee flight activity and longevityApidologie325768Google Scholar
  16. Malone, L.A., Burgess, E.P.J., Stefanovic, D. 1999Effects of a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin, two Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticide formulations, and a soybean trypsin inhibitor on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) survival and food consumptionApidologie30465473Google Scholar
  17. Malone, L.A., Pham-Delègue, M.H. 2001Effects of transgene products on honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus sp.)Apidologie32287304Google Scholar
  18. Novartis. 1999. Bt-maize and non-target organisms: compilation of available data. www.bba.de/gentech/btmaize.pdf.Google Scholar
  19. OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals. 1998. No 213. Honeybees, acute oral toxicity test. Adopted on 21st September.Google Scholar
  20. Pham-Delegue, M.H., Girard, C., Metayer, M., Picard-Nizou, A.L., Hennequet, C., Pons, O., Jouanin, L. 2000Long-term effects of soybean protease inhibitors on digestive enzymes, survival and learning abilities of honeybeesEntomol. Exp. Appl.952129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pilcher, C., Rice, M., Obrycki, J., Lewis, L. 1997Field and laboratory evaluations of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn on secondary Lepidopteran pests (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)J. Econ. Entomol.90669678Google Scholar
  22. Pimentel, D.S., Raven, P.H. 2000Bt corn pollen impacts on nontarget Lepidoptera: assessment of effects in natureProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.9781988199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Roberts, M.H., Sved, D.W., Wand, F.S.P. 1987Temporal changes in AHH and SOD activities in feral spot from the Elizabeth Rivera polluted sub-estuaryMar. Environ. Res.2389101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schur A., Tornier I. and Neumann C. 2000. Bt-Mais und non Bt-Mais: vergleichende Untersuchungen an Honigbienen (Tunnelzeltversuch). 47th Annual Meeting of the Institutes for Bee Research, April 3–5, 2000. B laubeuren bei Ulm, Germany Poster.Google Scholar
  25. Shu, C.E., Sun, H.W., Sun, Y.W., Bai, L.X., Huang, J.Q., Li, S. 1998Toxic response of cotton bollworm to various parts of Bt-transgenic cotton in different growing stagesActa Gossypii Sin.10131135(in Chinese)Google Scholar
  26. Sims, S.R. 1995Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (CryIA (c)) protein expressed in transgenic cotton: effects on beneficial and other non-target insectsSouthwest. Entomol.20493500Google Scholar
  27. Venugopal, N.B.R.K., Ramesh, T.V.D.D., Reddy, D.S., Reddy, S.L.N. 1997Effect of cadmium on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in a freshwater field crabBarytelphusa gueriniBull. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol.59132138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Xie, D.X., Fan, Y.L., Ni, W.C, Huang, J.Q. 1991Obtaining transgenic cotton plants by introducing Bacillus thuringiensis insiecticidal gene into cotton varietySci. China Ser. B21367373(in Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. Xu, L.H., He, X.H., Li, G.F., Yang, D.Y. 2000Bolling regularity of transgenic insect resistant cotton lines “Sukang 102” and “Sukang 310”Jiangsu J. Agric. Sci.4230233(in Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. Yan, F.M., Xu, C.R., Bengtsson, M., Witzgall, P., Anderson, P. 2002Volatile compositions of transgenic Bt cotton and their electrophysiological effects on the cotton bollwormActa Entomol. Sin.45425429(in Chinese)Google Scholar
  31. Yu, Z.N. 1990Bacillus thuringiensisScience PressBeijing, China399420(in Chinese).Google Scholar
  32. Zhang, F.X. 1998Modern Apiculture ProductionChinese Agricultural University PressBeijing, China330332(in Chinese)Google Scholar
  33. Zhang, Y.J., Guo, Y.Y. 2000Interactions between condensed tannin and Bt crystal protein in cottonActa Gossypii Sin.11294297(in Chinese)Google Scholar
  34. Zou, G.L., Gui, X.F., Zhong, X.L, Zhu, Y.F. 1986The measurement method of the superoxide dismutase activityProg. Biochem. Biophys.47173(in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Biao Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • ChongRen Xu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fengming Yan
    • 1
  • Ruizhong Gong
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Biology and Ecology, College of Life SciencesPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Division of Biodiversity Conservation, State Environmental Protection Administration of ChinaNanjing Institute of Environmental SciencesNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations