Biological Invasions

, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 1577–1595 | Cite as

A genetic reconstruction of the invasion of the calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus inopinus across the North American Pacific Coast

  • Eric DexterEmail author
  • Stephen M. Bollens
  • Jeffery Cordell
  • Ho Young Soh
  • Gretchen Rollwagen-Bollens
  • Susanne P. Pfeifer
  • Jérôme Goudet
  • Séverine Vuilleumier
Original Paper


The rate of aquatic invasions by planktonic organisms has increased considerably in recent decades. In order to effectively direct funding and resources to control the spread of such invasions, a methodological framework for identifying high-risk transport vectors, as well as ruling out vectors of lesser concern will be necessary. A number of estuarine ecosystems on the North American Pacific Northwest coast have experienced a series of high impact planktonic invasions that have slowly unfolded across the region in recent decades, most notably, that of the planktonic copepod crustacean Pseudodiaptomus inopinus. Although introduction of P. inopinus to the United States almost certainly occurred through the discharge of ballast water from commercial vessels originating in Asia (the species’ native range), the mechanisms and patterns of subsequent spread remain unknown. In order to elucidate the migration events shaping this invasion, we sampled the genomes of copepods from seven invasive and two native populations using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing. This genetic data was evaluated against spatially-explicit genetic simulation models to evaluate competing scenarios of invasion spread. Our results indicate that invasive populations of P. inopinus exhibit a geographically unstructured genetic composition, likely arising from infrequent and large migration events. This pattern of genetic patchiness was unexpected given the linear geographic structure of the sampled populations, and strongly contrasts with the clear invasion corridors observed in many aquatic systems.


RADseq Zooplankton Aquatic invasions Migration/colonization pattern ABC Genetic simulation Copepod 



The authors would like to thank Kristen Irwin for helpful comments and suggestions, as well as Alan Brelsford, Catherine Bernay, and Roberto Semier for their assistance with RADseq library preparation. Funding for this research was provided in part by the U.S. Department of State Fulbright program and the Swiss Government Excellence Scholarships for Foreign Scholars and Artists, as well as a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STAR graduate fellowship (grant #FP91780901-0) awarded to E. Dexter and S. Bollens. Additional funding was provided by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant #PMPDP3_158381) and a University of Lausanne FBM Interdisciplinary Grant to S. Vuilleumier, and by Washington Sea Grant for zooplankton sample collection (to S. Bollens and J. Cordell) and manuscript preparation (to G. Rollwagen-Bollens and S. Bollens). All computations were performed at the Vital-IT Center for high-performance computing of the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics ( and on the University of Lausanne’s GenpopBD high-performance computing cluster.

Author contributions

ED conceived the research question, collected North American samples, performed DNA extraction and RADseq library preparation, conducted bioinformatics and statistical analysis, programmed genetic simulations and led composition of the manuscript. JG guided selection of molecular protocols, helped design genetic simulations, and provided access to laboratory space, high performance computing facilities and sequencing resources. JG also contributed to data analysis and composition of the manuscript. SMB helped conceive of the initial problem and research question; supervised the North American field collections; and edited and co-wrote all versions of the manuscript, from initial outline to final submission. JC supervised the North American field collections and contributed to composition of the manuscript. HYS collected samples from the Republic of Korea, provided taxonomic and morphological expertise, and contributed to the composition of the manuscript. GRB supervised the North American field collections and contributed to composition of the manuscript. SPP contributed to bioinformatics analysis and contributed to the composition of the manuscript. SV helped conceive, design, and coordinate the project, select laboratory protocols, design genetic simulations, and arrange for laboratory space and specialized training provided to ED at the University of Lausanne. SV also contributed to bioinformatics and statistical analysis as well as composition of the manuscript.

Supplementary material

10530_2017_1649_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 20 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric Dexter
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stephen M. Bollens
    • 1
  • Jeffery Cordell
    • 2
  • Ho Young Soh
    • 3
  • Gretchen Rollwagen-Bollens
    • 1
  • Susanne P. Pfeifer
    • 4
    • 5
  • Jérôme Goudet
    • 6
  • Séverine Vuilleumier
    • 7
    • 8
  1. 1.Washington State UniversityVancouverUSA
  2. 2.School of Aquatic and Fishery SciencesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Chonnam National UniversityYeosuRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL SV IBI-SV UPJENSENLausanneSwitzerland
  5. 5.School of Life SciencesArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  6. 6.University of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  7. 7.École Polytechnique fédérale de LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  8. 8.La SourceUniversity of Applied Sciences and Arts, Western Switzerland (HES-SO) Health ScienceLausanneSwitzerland

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