Biological Invasions

, Volume 19, Issue 6, pp 1745–1759 | Cite as

Quantifying the extent of niche areas in the global fleet of commercial ships: the potential for “super-hot spots” of biofouling

  • Cameron S. Moser
  • Timothy P. Wier
  • Matthew R. First
  • Jonathan F. Grant
  • Scott C. Riley
  • Stephanie H. Robbins-Wamsley
  • Mario N. Tamburri
  • Gregory M. Ruiz
  • A. Whitman Miller
  • Lisa A. Drake
Original Paper


Niche areas of ships, such as lateral thruster tunnels, sea chests, and propellers, are often hot spots for the accumulation of biofouling organisms, a potential source of aquatic invasive species. Yet, the relative importance of different niche areas is poorly resolved, in terms of both total surface area and the associated biota (i.e., the species of organisms and their abundances). To address this information gap, a method was developed to estimate the extent of various niche areas in the global fleet of 120,252 commercial ships active between 1999 and 2013. The total niche area for these vessels was estimated to be 32,996 × 103 m2, representing approximately 10% of the total wetted surface area (WSA) available for colonization by biota. Considering the portion of niche areas relative to the total WSA, it was highest for passenger vessels (27%), followed by tugs (25%), and fishing vessels (21%), with niche areas representing a small portion of the WSA for bulk carriers and tankers (7–8%). Examining the different types of niche areas, thruster tunnels had the greatest total extent (10,189 × 103 m2), representing a disproportionately large contribution (>50%) of the total niche area for passenger vessels and tugs compared to other vessel types. This result, combined with the use and cleaning of thrusters, may render them “super-hot spots” of biofouling. The uneven distribution and extent of niche areas across vessels has implications for transfers of organisms and management strategies to reduce invasions associated with the surfaces of ships.


Aquatic nuisance species Invasive species Non-indigenous species 



This work was supported by the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science (funding agreement 2012–38) and the Maritime Administration (MARAD). We are grateful to Carolyn Junemann (MARAD) for guidance and programmatic support, and we thank Mark Minton (Smithsonian Environmental Research Center) for his insights regarding the shipping data. Likewise, we appreciate advice from Rich Everett (U.S. Coast Guard Office of Environmental Standards) and the data provided from the National Ballast Information Clearinghouse (NBIC). This work was supported by Diane Lysogorski, Former Section Head of NRL Code 6136 and Director of the Center for Corrosion Science and Engineering—Key West, Florida. Finally, the reviews of this manuscript by Edward Lemieux (Director, Code 6139, Naval Research Laboratory), Warren Schultz (Acting Superintendent, Chemistry Division, Naval Research Laboratory), James Carlton, and two anonymous reviewers improved it—thank you.

Supplementary material

10530_2017_1386_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (113 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 112 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland (outside the USA) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cameron S. Moser
    • 1
  • Timothy P. Wier
    • 2
  • Matthew R. First
    • 3
  • Jonathan F. Grant
    • 4
  • Scott C. Riley
    • 2
  • Stephanie H. Robbins-Wamsley
    • 2
  • Mario N. Tamburri
    • 5
  • Gregory M. Ruiz
    • 6
  • A. Whitman Miller
    • 6
  • Lisa A. Drake
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemistry DivisionU.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6137Key WestUSA
  2. 2.Excet IncSpringfieldUSA
  3. 3.Chemistry DivisionU.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6137WashingtonUSA
  4. 4.Battenkill Technologies, IncManchester CenterManchesterUSA
  5. 5.Chesapeake Biological LaboratoryUniversity of Maryland Center for Environmental ScienceSolomonsUSA
  6. 6.Smithsonian Environmental Research CenterEdgewaterUSA

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