Advertisement

Biological Invasions

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 223–237 | Cite as

Landscape-scale survey of non-native fishes near ornamental aquaculture facilities in Florida, USA

  • Quenton M. Tuckett
  • Jared L. Ritch
  • Katelyn M. Lawson
  • Jeffrey E. Hill
Original Paper

Abstract

The Tampa Bay region of Florida exhibits the highest concentration of ornamental aquaculture facilities in the USA. Because of the diversity of aquaculture products (~800 species and varieties) and extensive production history (began in the 1930s and 1940s), this region could be a hotspot for escaped ornamental fish. We evaluated the scope of ornamental fish invasions in this region by examining (1) escape vectors and (2) the distribution of escaped fish. We investigated potential pathways of fish escape including theft/vandalism, fish transport, bird carry-off, and through effluent discharge. Fish were sampled at the effluent discharge and continued into the surrounding environment. The dominant escape vector was through farm effluents; there was no evidence that theft/vandalism, fish transport, or bird carry-off contributed to fish escape. Most captured fish were natives, especially the ubiquitous Eastern Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). Ornamental species and varieties were also captured, especially cichlids and poeciliids such as the Green Swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) and Southern Platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus). Ornamental fish were often found in the immediate vicinity of fish farms but were rarely captured in the surrounding environment. Catch per unit effort and ornamental fish diversity declined when moving away from the aquaculture facility effluent and was reduced at sites with a detention pond. The observed fish distribution might be due to relatively cold water in sub-tropical Florida, predatory fish in the environment, and additional factors related to the physical or biological habitat. Ultimately, few ornamental fishes have established in this region despite a long period of extensive culture.

Keywords

Aquarium Escape Florida Non-native Vectors 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank our farm cooperators and the Florida Tropical Fish Farms Association. This research would not have been possible without their support. We also thank the staff at the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Aquaculture, including Joe Clayton, Kal Knickerbocker, Serina Rocco, and Portia Sapp. Jeremy Butts with the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service provided assistance in planning and implementing the bird surveys. Assistance with field sampling was provided by David Cray, Lauren Partridge, Bryanna Poli, and Holly Salg. Paul Zajicek provided thoughtful comments on an early version of this manuscript. Funding was provided by the University of Florida/IFAS School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory and a grant from the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services’ Division of Aquaculture.

Supplementary material

10530_2016_1275_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 13 kb)
10530_2016_1275_MOESM2_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 13 kb)

References

  1. Avery M, Eiselman D, Young M et al (1999) Wading bird predation at tropical aquaculture facilities in central Florida. N Am J Aquac 61:64–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baltz D, Moyle P (1993) Invasion resistance to introduced species by a native assemblage of California stream fishes. Ecol Appl 3:246–255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barras S (2007) Avian predators at aquaculture facilities in the Southern United States. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center, Stoneville MS, Publication No. 400Google Scholar
  4. Bohlin T, Hamrin S, Heggberget TG et al (1989) Electrofishing—theory and practice with special emphasis on salmonids. Hydrobiologia 173:9–43. doi: 10.1007/BF00008596 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burgess J (1958) The fishes of Six Mile Creek, Hillsborough County, Florida, with particular reference to the presence of exotic species. In: Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners. Louisville, KYGoogle Scholar
  6. Capps KA, Flecker AS (2013) Invasive aquarium fish transform ecosystem nutrient dynamics. Proc R Soc B 280:20131520. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.1520 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Carmona-Catot G, Magellan K, García-Berthou E (2013) Temperature-specific competition between invasive mosquitofish and an endangered cyprinodontid fish. PLoS ONE 8:e54734. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054734 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Catford JA, Jansson R, Nilsson C (2009) Reducing redundancy in invasion ecology by integrating hypotheses into a single theoretical framework. Divers Distrib 15:22–40. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2008.00521.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clavero M, García-Berthou E (2005) Invasive species are a leading cause of animal extinctions. Trends Ecol Evol 20:110. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2005.01.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Courtenay WR (1997) Nonindigenous Fishes. In: Simberloff D, Schmitz DC, Brown TC (eds) Strangers in paradise: impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Island Press, Washington, pp 109–122Google Scholar
  11. Courtenay WR, Stauffer JR (1990) The introduced fish problem and the aquarium fish industry. J World Aquac Soc 21:145–159. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-7345.1990.tb01017.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. FDACS (2015) Aquaculture best management practices rule. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Aquaculture, Tallahassee, FLGoogle Scholar
  13. Gertzen E, Familiar O, Leung B (2008) Quantifying invasion pathways: fish introductions from the aquarium trade. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 65:1265–1273. doi: 10.1139/F08-056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gozlan RE (2008) Introduction of non-native freshwater fish: is it all bad? Fish Fish 9:106–115. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2007.00267.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gozlan R, Britton J, Cowx I, Copp G (2010) Current knowledge on non-native freshwater fish introductions. J Fish Biol 76:751–786. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2010.02566.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gunderson J, Kinnunen R (2004) Aquatic nuisance species: hazard analysis and critical control point training curriculum, 2nd ed. Minnesota Sea Grant Publication Number MN SG-F11Google Scholar
  17. Gurevitch J, Padilla DK (2004) Are invasive species a major cause of extinctions? Trends Ecol Evol 19:470–474. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2004.07.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hill JE (2008) Non-native species in aquaculture: terminology, potential impacts, and the invasion process. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center, Stoneville MS, Publication No. 4303Google Scholar
  19. Hill JE, Yanong RPE (2010) Freshwater ornamental fish commonly cultured in Florida. University of Florida IFAS Extension, Circular 54. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fa054
  20. Hill JE, Kapuscinski AR, Pavlowic T (2011) Fluorescent transgenic zebra danio more vulnerable to predators than wild-type. Trans Am Fish Soc 140:1001–1005. doi: 10.1080/00028487.2011.603980 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hill JE, Tuckett QM, Martinez CV et al (2016) Preventing escape of non-native species from aquaculture facilities in Florida, part 2: facility evaluation strategies. University of Florida IFAS Extension, FA196. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fa196
  22. Kolar CS, Lodge DM (2001) Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends Ecol Evol 16:199–204. doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02101-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kolar CS, Lodge DM (2002) Ecological predictions and risk assessment for alien fishes in North America. Science 298:1233–1236. doi: 10.1126/science.1075753 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Laha M, Mattingly HT (2006) Ex situ evaluation of impacts of invasive mosquitofish on the imperiled Barrens topminnow. Environ Biol Fishes 78:1–11. doi: 10.1007/s10641-006-9040-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mazza G (2014) Biological invaders are threats to human health: an overview. Ethology, Ecol Evol 26:112–129. doi: 10.1080/03949370.2013.863225 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Morris MRJ, Fraser DJ, Heggelin AJ et al (2008) Prevalence and recurrence of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in eastern North American rivers. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 65:2807–2826. doi: 10.1139/F08-181 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Naylor RL, Williams SL, Strong DR (2001) Aquaculture—a gateway for exotic species. Science 294:1655–1656. doi: 10.1126/science.1064875 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Nico LG, Fuller PL, Neilson M (2015) Herichthus cyanoguttatum. USGS nonindigenous aquatic species database, Gainesville, FL, USA. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=443
  29. Padilla DK, Williams SL (2004) Beyond Ballast Water: aquarium and ornamental trades as sources of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems. Front Ecol Environ 2:131–138. doi: 10.2307/3868238 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Page LM, Espinosa-Perez H, Findley LT, et al (2013) Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edn. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, Special Publication 34Google Scholar
  31. Parker I, Simberloff D, Lonsdale W et al (1999) Impact: toward a framework for understanding the ecological effects of invaders. Biol Invasions 1:3–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pimentel D, Lach L, Zuniga R, Morrison D (2000) Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. Bioscience 50:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pyke GH (2008) Plague minnow or mosquito Fish? A review of the biology and impacts of introduced Gambusia species. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 39:171–191. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.39.110707.173451 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Reddy K (1983) Fate of nitrogen and phosphorus in a waste-water retention reservoir containing aquatic macrophytes. J Environ Qual 12:137–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rehage JS, Blanchard JR (2016) What can we expect from climate change for species invasions? Fisheries 41:405–407. doi: 10.1080/03632415.2016.1180287 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schofield PJ, Loftus WF (2015) Non-native fishes in Florida freshwaters: a literature review and synthesis. Rev Fish Biol Fish 25:117–145. doi: 10.1007/s11160-014-9373-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schofield PJ, Schulte JM (2016) Small but tough: what can ecophysiology of croaking gourami Trichopsis vittata (Cuvier, 1831) tell us about invasiveness of non-native fishes in Florida? Neobiota 65:51–65. doi: 10.3897/neobiota.28.5259 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schofield PJ, Loftus WF, Kobza RM et al (2010) Tolerance of nonindigenous cichlid fishes (Cichlasoma urophthalmus, Hemichromis letourneuxi) to low temperature: laboratory and field experiments in south Florida. Biol Invasions 12:2441–2457. doi: 10.1007/s10530-009-9654-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shafland P (1979) Non-native fish introductions with special reference to Florida. Fisheries 4:18–24. doi: 10.1577/1548-8446(1979)004<0018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shafland P (1996) Exotic fish assessments: an alternative view. Rev Fish Sci 4:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shafland P, Pestrak J (1982) Lower lethal temperatures for fourteen non-native fishes in Florida. Environ Biol Fishes 7:149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shafland P, Gestring K, Stanford M (2008a) Florida’s exotic freshwater fishes–2007. Florida Sci 71:220–245Google Scholar
  43. Shafland PL, Gestring KB, Stanford MS (2008b) Categorizing introduced fishes collected from public waters. Southeast Nat 7:627–636. doi: 10.1656/1528-7092-7.4.627 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shafland PL, Gestring KB, Stanford MS (2009) An assessment of the Asian Swamp Eel (Monopterus albus) in Florida. Rev Fish Sci 18:25–39. doi: 10.1080/10641260903225542 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Simberloff D (2007) Given the stakes, our modus operandi in dealing with invasive species should be “guilty until proven innocent”. Conserv Mag 8:18–19Google Scholar
  46. Smajstrla A, Griggs M, Lazur A et al (2009) Stormwater detention and discharge from aquaculture ponds in Florida. University of Florida IFAS Extension, Bull 334. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FA/FA15800.pdf
  47. Strecker A, Campbell P, Olden J (2011) The aquarium trade as an invasion pathway in the Pacific Northwest. Fisheries 36:74–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thompson KA, Hill JE, Nico LG (2012) Eastern mosquitofish resists invasion by nonindigenous poeciliids through agonistic behaviors. Biol Invasions 14:1515–1529. doi: 10.1007/s10530-012-0176-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Trexler J, Loftus W, Jordan F, Lorenz J (2000) Empirical assessment of fish introductions in a subtropical wetland: an evaluation of contrasting views. Biol Invasions 2:265–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tuckett QM, Martinez CV, Ritch JL et al (2016a) Preventing escape of non-native species from aquaculture facilities in Florida, part 1: general considerations and regulations. University of Florida IFAS Extension, FA195. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fa195
  51. Tuckett QM, Martinez CV, Ritch JL et al (2016b) Preventing escape of non-native species from aquaculture facilities in Florida, part 3: structural strategies. University of Florida IFAS Extension, FA197. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fa197
  52. Tuckett QM, Martinez CV, Ritch JL et al (2016c) Preventing escape of non-native species from aquaculture facilities in Florida, part 4: operational strategies. University of Florida IFAS Extension, FA198. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fa198
  53. Tuckett QM, Ritch JL, Lawson KM et al (2016d) Variation in cold tolerance in escaped and farmed non-native green swordtails (Xiphophorus hellerii) revealed by laboratory trials and field introductions. Biol Invasions 18:45–56. doi: 10.1007/s10530-015-0988-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tuckett QM, Ritch JL, Lawson KM, Hill JE (2016e) Implementation and enforcement of best management practices for Florida ornamental aquaculture with an emphasis on nonnative species. N Am J Aquac 78:113–124. doi: 10.1080/15222055.2015.1121176 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. USDA–NASS (U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service). 2013. Florida aquaculture sales total $69 million in 2012. USDA–NASS, Washington, D.CGoogle Scholar
  56. Williamson M (2006) Explaining and predicting the success of invading species at different stages of invasion. Biol Invasions 8:1561–1568. doi: 10.1007/s10530-005-5849-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Williamson M, Fitter A (1996) The varying success of invaders. Ecology 77:1661–1666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zajicek PW, Hill JE, Stone N, et al (2009) Preventing hitchhiking nonindigenous species in live shipments. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center, Stoneville MS, Publication No. 3902Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Quenton M. Tuckett
    • 1
  • Jared L. Ritch
    • 2
  • Katelyn M. Lawson
    • 1
  • Jeffrey E. Hill
    • 1
  1. 1.Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory, Program in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, School of Forest Resources and ConservationUniversity of FloridaRuskinUSA
  2. 2.Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation CommissionFish and Wildlife Research InstituteSt. PetersburgUSA

Personalised recommendations