Advertisement

Biological Invasions

, Volume 18, Issue 9, pp 2463–2474 | Cite as

What happens in Vegas, better stay in Vegas: Phragmites australis hybrids in the Las Vegas Wash

  • Kristin Saltonstall
  • Adam M. Lambert
  • Nick Rice
PHRAGMITES INVASION

Abstract

While hybridization between Native and Introduced Phragmites australis has not been documented across much of North America, it poses an ongoing threat to Native P. australis across its range. This is especially true for native populations in the biologically rich, but sparsely distributed wetlands of the southwest United States, which are among the most imperiled systems in North America. We identified multiple Hybrid P. australis stands in the Las Vegas Wash watershed, NV, a key regional link to the Colorado River basin. Rapid urbanization in this watershed has caused striking changes in water and nutrient inputs and the distribution of wetland habitats has also changed, with urban wetlands expanding but an overall reduction in wetland habitats regionally. Native P. australis has likely been present in the Wash wetland community in low abundance for thousands of years, but today Hybrid and Native plants dominate the shoreline along much of the Wash. In contrast, Introduced P. australis is rare, suggesting that opportunities for novel hybridization events remain uncommon. Hybrid crosses derived from both the native and introduced maternal lineages are widespread, although the conditions that precluded their establishment are unknown and we did not find evidence for backcrossing. Spread of Hybrid plants is likely associated with flooding events as well as restoration activities, including revegetation efforts and construction for erosion control, that have redistributed sediments containing P. australis rhizomes. Downstream escape of Hybrid plants to Lake Mead and wetlands throughout the lower Colorado River basin is of management concern as these Hybrids appear vigorous and could spread rapidly.

Keywords

Hybridization Invasion Desert cpDNA Microsatellite Anthropogenic disturbance Clonal spread 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Southern Nevada Water Authority and Clark County Parks and Recreation for funding this project, and R. Long and T. Dudley for assistance with sample collection and preparation. Two reviewers provided helpful comments.

Supplementary material

10530_2016_1167_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (51 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 50 kb)

References

  1. Albert A, Brisson J, Belzile F, Turgeon J, Lavoie C (2015) Strategies for a successful plant invasion: the reproduction of Phragmites australis in north-eastern North America. J Ecol 103:1529–1537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnold ML, Hodges SA (1995) Are natural hybrids fit or unfit relative to their parents? TREE 10:67–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayres DR, Zaremba K, Sloop CM, Strong DR (2008) Sexual reproduction of cordgrass hybrids (Spartina foliosa x alterniflora) invading tidal marshes in San Francisco Bay. Divers Distrib 14:187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bart D, Hartmann JM (2003) The role of large rhizome dispersal and low salinity windows in the establishment of common reed, Phragmites australis. Estuaries 26:436–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bart D, Burdick D, Chambers RM, Hartman JM (2006) Human facilitation of Phragmites australis invasions in tidal marshes: a review and synthesis. Wetl Ecol Manage 14:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belzile F, Labbé J, LeBlanc M-C, Lavoie C (2010) Seeds contribute strongly to the spread of the invasive genotype of the common reed (Phragmites australis). Biol Invasions 12:2243–2250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brisson J, de Blois S, Lavoie C (2010) Roadsides as invasion pathway for common reed (Phragmites australis). Invasive Plant Sci Manage 3:506–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brock JH (1994) Tamarix spp. salt cedar, an invasive extoic woody plant in arid and semi-arid riparian habitats of western USA. In: de Waal LC, LE Child, Wade PM, Brock JH, Randall JH, Hosovsky MC (eds) Ecology and management of invasive riverside plants. Wiley, New York, pp 27–44Google Scholar
  9. Chambers RM, Meyerson LA, Saltonstall K (1999) Expansion of Phragmites australis into tidal wetlands of North America. Aquat Bot 64:261–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chivers C, Leung B (2012) Predicting invasions: alternative models of human-mediated dispersal and interactions between dispersal network structure and Allee effects. J Appl Ecol 49:1113–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark LV, Jasieniuk M (2011) POLYSAT: an R package for polyploid microsatellite analysis. Mol Ecol Res 11:562–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clevering O, Lissner J (1999) Taxonomy, chromosome numbers, clonal diversity and population dynamics of Phragmites australis. Aquat Bot 64:185–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coyne JA, Orr HA (2004) Speciation. Sinauer Associates, Inc, Sunderland, p 545Google Scholar
  14. Daehler C (2003) Performance comparisons of co-occurring native and alien invasive plants: implications for conservation and restoration. Annu Rev Ecol Ecol Syst 34:183–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deacon JE, Williams AE, Williams CD, Williams JE (2007) Fueling population growth in Las Vegas: how large-scale groundwater withdrawal could burn regional biodiversity. Bioscience 57:688–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Douhovnikoff V, Hazelton ELG (2014) Clonal growth: invasion or stability? A comparative study of clonal architecture and diverstiy in native and introduced lineages of Phragmites australis (Poaceae). Am J Bot 10:1577–1584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Doyle JJ, Doyle JL (1987) A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochem Bull 19:11–15Google Scholar
  18. Dudley TL (2000) Noxious wildland weeds of California: Arundo donax. In: Bossard C, Randall JH, Hosovsky MC (eds) Invasive plants of California’s wildlands. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  19. El Hamouri B, Nazih J, Lahjouj J (2007) Subsurface-horizontal flow constructed wetland for sewage treatment under Moroccan climate conditions. Desalination 215:153–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ellstrand NC, Schierenbeck KA (2000) Hybridization as a stimulus for the evolution of invasiveness in plants? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:7043–7050CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Evanno G, Regnaut S, Goudet J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Mol Ecol 14:2611–2620CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Falush D, Stephens M, Pritchard JK (2007) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data: dominant markers and null alleles. Mol Ecol Notes. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01758.x PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Gervais C (1981) Liste annotée de nombres chromosomiques de la flore vasculaire du nord-est de l’amérique II. Nat Canad 108:143–152Google Scholar
  24. Haley JS, Croft LK, Leavitt SE, Paulson LJ (1989) Introduction and enhancement of vegetative cover at Lake Mead. http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/water_pubs/49
  25. Hall RJ, Hastings A, Ayres DR (2006) Explaining the explosion: modeling hybrid invasions. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 273:1385–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hansen RM (1978) Shasta ground sloth food habits, Rampart Cave, Arizona. Paleobiology 4:302–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hitchcock A (1950) Manual of the grasses of the United States. Miscellaneous publication no 200, 2nd edn, 190Google Scholar
  28. Horppila J, Kaitaranta J, Joensuu L, Nurminen L (2013) Influence of emergent macrophyte (Phragmites australis) density on water turbulence and erosion control of organic-rich sediment. J Hydrodyn B 25:288–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hulme PE (2009) Trade, transport, and trouble: managing invasive species pathways in an era of globalization. J Appl Ecol 46:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kaufmann RF (1977) Land and water use impacts on ground-water quality in Las Vegas Valley. Ground Water 15:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kettenring K, Mock B (2012) Genetic diversity, reproductive mode, and dispersal differ between the cryptic invader, Phragmites australis, and its native conspecific. Biol Invasions 14:2489–2504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kettenring KM, McCormick MK, Baron HM, Whigham DF (2011) Mechanisms of Phragmites australis invasion: feedbacks among genetic diversity, nutrients, and sexual reproduction. J Appl Ecol 48:1305–1313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kettenring KM, de Blois S, Hauber DP (2012) Moving from a regional to a continental perspective of Phragmites australis invasion in North America. AoB Plants pls040. doi: 10.1093/aobpla/pls040
  34. Kirk H, Paul J, Straka J, Freeeland JR (2011) Long-distance dispersal and high genetic diversity are implicated in the invasive spread of the common reed, Phragmites australis (Poaceae), in northeastern North America. Am J Bot 98:1180–1190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kiviat E (2013) Ecosystem services of Phragmites in North America with an emphasis on habitat functions. AoB Plants 5:plt008CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Kulmatiski A, Beard KH, Meyerson LA, Gibson JR, Mock KE (2011) Nonnative Phragmites australis invasion into Utah Wetlands. West N Am Nat 70:541–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lambert AM, Dudley TL, Saltonstall K (2010) Ecology and impacts of the large-statured invasive grasses Arundo donax and Phragmites australis in North America. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 3:489–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lambert AM, Dudley TL, Robbins J (2014) Nutrient enrichment and soil conditions drive productivity in the large-statured invasive grass Arundo donax. Aquat Bot 112:16–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lambert AM, Saltonstall K, Long R, Dudley TL (2016) Biogeography of native and introduced Phragmites lineages in the southwestern United States. Biol Invasions. doi: 10.1007/s10530-016-1164-8
  40. Lelong B, Lavoie C, Jodoin Y, Belzile F (2007) Expansion pathways of the exotic common reed (Phragmites australis): a historical and genetic analysis. Divers Distrib 13:430–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lotts K, Naberhaus T (2015) Butterflies and moths of North America. http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/(Version 10/10/2015) via the Internet
  42. LVWCC (2000) Ch. 1 History of Las Vegas Wash. http://www.lvwash.org/html/resources_library_lvwcamp.html
  43. LVWCC (2015) LV Wash—erosion at the Las Vegas Wash. http://www.lvwash.org/cfml/photo/index.cfml?gid=120. Accessed 29 Sept 2015
  44. Lynch M (1990) The similarity index and DNA fingerprinting. Mol Biol Evol 7:478–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Maheux-Giroux M, de Blois S (2007) Landscape ecology of Phragmites australis invasion in networks of linear wetlands. Landsc Ecol 22:285–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McCormick MK, Kettenring K, Baron HM, Whigham DF, Mock B (2010a) Extent and reproductive mechanisms of Phragmites australis spread in brackish wetlands in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland (USA). Wetlands 30:67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McCormick MK, Kettenring KM, Baron HM, Whigham DF (2010b) Spread of invasive Phragmites australis in estuaries with differing degrees of development: genetic patterns, Allee effects and interpretation. J Ecol 98:1369–1378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McCormick MK, Brooks H, Whigham DF (2016) Microsatellite analysis to estimate realized dispersal distance in Phragmites australis. Biol Invasions. doi: 10.1007/s10530-016-1126-1
  49. Meadows RE, Saltonstall K (2007) Distribution of native and introduced Phragmites australis in freshwater and oligohaline tidal marshes of the Delmarva peninsula and southern New Jersey. J Torr Bot Soc 134:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Meyerson LA, Viola DV, Brown RN (2010) Hybridization of invasive Phragmites australis with a native subspecies in North America. Biol Invasions 12:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Meyerson LA, Cronin JT, Bhattarai GP, Brix H, Lambertini C et al. (2016) Do ploidy level and nuclear genome size and latitude of origin modify the expression of Phragmites australis traits and interactions with herbivores? Biol Invasions (in press)Google Scholar
  52. Miltner RJ, White D, Yoder C (2004) The biotic integrity of streams in urban and suburbanizing landscapes. Landsc Urban Plan 69:87–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Patten D, Rouse L, Stromberg J (2008) Isolated spring wetlands in the Great Basin and Mojave Deserts, USA: potential response of vegetation to groundwater withdrawal. Environ Manag 41:398–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Paul MJ, Meyer JL (2001) Streams in the Urban Landscape. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 32:333–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Paul J, Vachon N, Garroway CJ, Freeland JR (2010) Molecular data provide strong evidence of natural hybridization between native and introduced lineages of Phragmites australis in North America. Biol Invasions 12:2967–2973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pimentel D, Lach L, Zuniga R, Morrison D (2000) Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. Bioscience 50:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Preston CD, Pearman DA (2015) Plant hybrids in the wild: evidence from biological recording. Biol J Linn Soc 115:555–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155:945–959PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Roach WJ, Heffernan JB, Grimm NB, Arrowsmith JR, Eisinger C et al (2008) Unintended consequences of urbanization for aquatic ecosystems: a case study from the Arizona Desert. Bioscience 58:715–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Saltonstall K (2001) A set of primers for amplification of noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA in the grasses. Mol Ecol Notes 1:76–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Saltonstall K (2002) Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the common reed, Phragmites australis, into North America. Proce Nat Acad Sci 99:2445–2449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Saltonstall K (2003a) Genetic variation among North American populations of Phragmites australis: implications for management. Estuaries 26:444–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Saltonstall K (2003b) Microsatellite variation within and among North American lineages of Phragmites australis. Mol Ecol 12:1689–1702CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Saltonstall K (2011) Remnant native Phragmites australis maintains genetic diversity despite multiple threats. Conserv Gen 12:1027–1033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Saltonstall K, Hauber D (2007) Notes on Phragmites australis (Poaceae: Arundinoideae) in North America. J BRIT 1:385–388Google Scholar
  66. Saltonstall K, Glennon K, Barnett A, Hunter RB, Hunter K (2007) Comparison of morphological variation indicative of ploidy level in Phragmites australis (Poaceae) from eastern North America. Rhodora 109:415–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Saltonstall K, Castillo HE, Blossey B (2014) Confirmed field hybridization of native and introduced Phragmites australis (Poaceae) in North America. Am J Bot 101:211–215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Schierenbeck KA, Ellstrand NC (2009) Hybridization and the evolution of invasiveness in plants and other organisms. Biol Invasions 11:1093–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sciance MB, Patrick CJ, Weller DE, Williams MN, McCormick MK, Hazelton EL (2016) Local and regional disturbances associated with the invasion of Chesapeake Bay marshes by the common reed Phragmites australis. Biol Invasions. doi: 10.1007/s10530-016-1136-z
  70. Shanahan SA, Silverman D, Ehrenberg A (2008) Land cover types of the Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. http://www.lvwash.org/assets/pdf/resources_ecoresearch_landcover.pdf
  71. Silliman BR, Bertness MD (2004) Shoreline development drives invasion of Phragmites australis and the loss of plant diversity on New England salt marshes. Conserv Biol 18:1424–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Stabile J, Lipus D, Maceda L, Maltz M, Roy N, Wirgin I (2016) Microsatellite DNA analysis of spatial and temporal population structuring of Phragmites australis along the Hudson River Estuary. Biol Invasions. doi: 10.1007/s10530-016-1157-7
  73. Suarez AV, Holway DA, Case TJ (2001) Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: insights from Argentine ants. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 98:1095–1100CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Taberlet P, Gielly L, Pautou Bouvet JG, Meyer JL (1991) Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. Plant Mol Biol 17:1105–1109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Tiner R (2003) Geographically isolated wetlands of the United States. Wetlands 23:494–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Townsend-Small A, Pataki DE, Liu H, Li Z, Wu Q et al (2013) Increasing summer river discharge in southern California, USA, linked to urbanization. Geophys Res Lett 40:4643–4647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Vähä J-PK, Primmer CR (2006) Detecting hybridization between individuals of closely related populations—a simulation study to assess the efficiency of model-based Bayesian methods to detect hybrid individuals. Mol Ecol 15:63–72CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Vasquez E, Sheley R, Svejcar T (2008) Creating invasion resistant soils via nitrogen management. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 1:304–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Vilà M, Weber E, D’Antonio CM (2000) Conservation implications of invasion by plant hybridization. Biol Invasions 2:207–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM (1997) Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277:494–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. von der Lippe M, Bullock JM, Kowarik Knop T, Wichmann MI (2013) Human mediated dispersal of seeds by the airflow of vehicles. PLoS One 8:e52733CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Windham L, Meyerson LA (2003) Effects of common reed (Phragmites australis) expansions on nitrogen dynamics of tidal marshes of the northeastern US. Estuaries 26:475–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wu CA, Murray LA, Heffernan KE (2015) Evidence for natural hybridization between native and introduced lineages of Phragmites australis in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Am J Bot 102:805–812CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland (outside the USA) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristin Saltonstall
    • 1
  • Adam M. Lambert
    • 2
  • Nick Rice
    • 3
  1. 1.Smithsonian Tropical Research InstituteBalboa, AnconRepublic of Panama
  2. 2.Marine Science InstituteUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  3. 3.Southern Nevada Water AuthorityLas VegasUSA

Personalised recommendations