Biological Invasions

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 893–905 | Cite as

Global compositional variation among native and non-native regional insect assemblages emphasizes the importance of pathways

  • Andrew M. Liebhold
  • Takehiko Yamanaka
  • Alain Roques
  • Sylvie Augustin
  • Steven L. Chown
  • Eckehard G. Brockerhoff
  • Petr Pyšek
Insect Invasions

Abstract

Insects are among the world’s most ecologically and economically important invasive species. Here we assemble inventories of native and non-native species from 20 world regions and contrast relative numbers among these species assemblages. Multivariate ordination indicates that the distribution of species among insect orders is completely different between native and non-native assemblages. Some orders, such as the Psocoptera, Dictyoptera, Siphonaptera, Thysanoptera, and Hemiptera, are always over-represented in the non-native compared to native assemblages. Other orders, such as the Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Mecoptera and Microcoryphila, are consistently under-represented in non-native assemblages. These patterns most likely arise both as a result of variation among taxa in their association with invasion pathways responsible for transporting species among world regions, as well as variation in life-history traits that affect establishment potential. However, our results indicate that species compositions associated with invasiveness are fundamentally different from compositions related to insularity, indicating that colonization of islands selects for a different group of insect taxa than does selection for successful invaders. Native and non-native assemblage compositions were also related, to a lesser extent, to latitude of the region sampled. Together, these results illustrate the dominant role of invasion pathways in shaping the composition of non-native insect assemblages. They also emphasize the difference between natural background colonization of islands and anthropogenic colonization events, and imply that biological invasions are not a simple subset of a long-standing ecological process.

Keywords

Biological invasion Establishment Fauna Island Introduction pathway Insect order Multivariate analysis 

Supplementary material

10530_2016_1079_MOESM1_ESM.docx (615 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 615 kb)

References

  1. Arnett RH (2000) American insects: a handbook of the insects of America north of Mexico. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker HG (1965) Characteristics and modes of origin of weeds. In: Baker HG, Stebbins GL (eds) The genetics of colonizing species. Academic, New York, pp 147–169Google Scholar
  3. Blackburn TM, Pyšek P, Bacher S et al (2011) A proposed unified framework for biological invasions. Trends Ecol Evol 26:333–339CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Blackburn TM, Essl F, Evans T et al (2014) A unified classification of alien species based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts. PLoS Biol 12:e1001850CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyero L (2002) Insect biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems: is there any latitudinal gradient? Mar Freshw Res 53:753–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brockerhoff EG, Bain J, Kimberley M, Knížek M (2006) Interception frequency of exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and relationship with establishment in New Zealand and worldwide. Can J For Res 36:289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brockerhoff EG, Kimberley M, Liebhold AM, Haack RA, Cavey JF (2014) Predicting how altering propagule pressure changes establishment rates of biological invaders across species pools. Ecology 95:594–601CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Carlquist S (1965) Island life. A natural history of the islands of the world. American Museum of Natural History, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Causton CE, Peck SB, Sinclair BJ, Roque-Albelo L, Hodgson CJ, Landry B (2006) Alien insects: threats and implications for conservation of Galápagos Islands. Ann Entomol Soc Am 99:121–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheng L (1976) Marine insects. North Holland Publishing, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  11. Chown SL, Convey P (2016) Antarctic entomology. Annu Rev Entomol 61. doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-010715-023537
  12. Chown SL, Gremmen NJM, Gaston KJ (1998) Ecological biogeography of Southern Ocean Islands: species-area relationships, human impacts, and conservation. Am Nat 152:562–575CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chown SL, Slabber S, McGeoch MA, Janion C, Leinaas HP (2007) Phenotypic plasticity mediates climate change responses among invasive and indigenous arthropods. Proc R Soc Lond B 274:2661–2667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chown SL, Huiskes AHL, Gremmen NJM et al (2012) Continent-wide risk assessment for the establishment of nonindigenous species in Antarctica. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:4938–4943CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Crawley MJ, Kornberg H, Lawton JH, Usher MB, Southwood R, O’Connor RJ, Gibbs A (1986) The population biology of invaders [and discussion]. Phil Trans R Soc B 314:711–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Daehler CC (1998) The taxonomic distribution of invasive angiosperm plants: ecological insights and comparison to agricultural weeds. Biol Conserv 84:167–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Daehler CC (2003) Performance comparisons of co-occurring native and alien invasive plants: implications for conservation and restoration. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 34:183–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Jong Y et al (2014) Fauna Europaea—all European animal species on the web. Biodivers Data J 2:e4034CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. DeBach P (1965) Some biological and ecological phenomena associated with colonizing entomophagous insects. In: Baker HG, Stebbins GL (eds) The genetics of colonizing species. Academic, New York, pp 287–303Google Scholar
  20. Diez JM, Sullivan JJ, Hulme PE, Edwards G, Duncan RP (2008) Darwin’s naturalization conundrum: dissecting taxonomic patterns of species invasions. Ecol Lett 11:674–681CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Elton CS (1958) The ecology of invasions by animals and plants. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Evans TA (2012) Invasive termites. In: Bignell DE, Roisin Y, Lo N (eds) Biology of termites: a modern synthesis. Springer, Netherlands, pp 519–562Google Scholar
  23. Failla AJ, Vasquez AA, Fujimoto M, Ram JL (2015) The ecological, economic and public health impacts of nuisance chironomids and their potential as aquatic invaders. Aquat Invas 10:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Frenot Y, Chown SL, Whinam J, Selkirk PM, Convey P, Skotnicki M, Bergstrom DM (2005) Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications. Biol Rev 80:45–72CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Garnas J, Auger-Rozenberg MA, Roques A, Bertelsmeier C, Wingfield M, Saccaggi DL, Roy H, Slippers B (2016) Complex patterns of global spread in invasive insects: Eco-evolutionary and management consequences. Biol Invas. doi:10.1007/s10530-016-1082-9
  26. Gaston KJ, Chown SL, Mercer RD (2001) The animal species-body size distribution of Marion Island. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:14493–14496CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Gaston KJ, Jones AG, Hänel C, Chown SL (2003) Rates of species introduction to a remote oceanic island. Proc R Soc Lond B 270:1091–1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gordon DP (2010) New Zealand inventory of biodiversity, Vol. 2. Kingdom Animalia: Chaetognatha, Ecdysozoa, lchnofossiIs. University of Canterbury Press, ChristchurchGoogle Scholar
  29. Hazell SP, Vel T, Fellowes MD (2008) The role of exotic plants in the invasion of Seychelles by the polyphagous insect Aleurodicus dispersus: a phylogenetically controlled analysis. Biol Invas 10:169–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Herms DA, McCullough DG (2014) Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts and management. Annu Rev Entomol 59:13–30CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hulme PE (2009) Trade, transport and trouble: managing invasive species pathways in an era of globalization. J Appl Ecol 46:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hulme PE, Bacher S, Kenis M et al (2008) Grasping at the routes of biological invasions: a framework for integrating pathways into policy. J Appl Ecol 45:403–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Janion C, Leinaas HP, Terblanche JS, Chown SL (2010) Trait means and reaction norms: the consequences of climate change/invasion interactions at the organism level. Evol Ecol 24:1365–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jarošík V, Kenis M, Honěk A, Skuhrovec J, Pyšek P (2015) Invasive insects differ from non-invasive in their thermal requirements. PLoS ONE 10:e0131072CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Jenkins DA, Mizell RF III, Van Bloem S, Whitmire S, Wiscovitch L, Zaleski C, Goenaga R (2014) An analysis of arthropod interceptions by APHIS-PPQ and customs and border protection in Puerto Rico. Am Entomol 60:44–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Karatayev AY, Burlakova LE, Padilla DK, Mastitsky SE, Olenin S (2009) Invaders are not a random selection of species. Biol Invas 11:2009–2019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kenis M, Rabitsch W, Auger-Rozenberg M-A, Roques A (2007) How can alien species inventories and interception data help us prevent insect invasions? Bull Entomol Res 97:489–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kenis M, Auger-Rozenberg M-A, Roques A, Timms L, Péré C, Cock MJW, Settele J, Augustin S, Lopez-Vaamonde C (2009) Ecological effects of invasive alien insects. Biol Invas 11:1–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kenkel NC, Orlóci L (1986) Applying metric and nonmetric multidimensional scaling to ecological studies: some new results. Ecology 67:919–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kettunen M, Genovesi P, Gollasch S, Pagad S, Starfinger U, ten Brink P, Shine C (2009) Technical support to EU strategy on invasive alien species (IAS): assessment of the impacts of IAS in Europe and the EU (final module report for the European Commission). Institute for European Environmental Policy, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  41. Kiritani K, Yamamura K (2003) Exotic insects and their pathways for invasion. In: Ruiz GM, Carlton JT (eds) Invasive species—vectors and management strategies. Island Press, Washington, pp 44–67Google Scholar
  42. Kolar CS, Lodge DM (2001) Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends Ecol Evol 16:199–204CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kouki J, Niemelä P, Viitasaari M (1994) Reversed latitudinal gradient in species richness of sawflies (Hymenoptera, Symphyta). Ann Zool Fenn 31:83–88Google Scholar
  44. Lambdon PW, Pyšek P, Basnou C et al (2008) Alien flora of Europe: species diversity, temporal trends, geographical patterns and research needs. Preslia 80:101–149Google Scholar
  45. Lawton JH, Brown KC, Crawley MJ, Way MJ, Holdgate MW, May RM et al (1986) The population and community ecology of invading insects [and discussion]. Phil Trans R Soc 314:607–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lee JE, Chown SL (2009) Breaching the dispersal barrier to invasion: quantification and management. Ecol Appl 19:1944–1959CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Leigh EG Jr (1981) The average lifetime of a population in a varying environment. J Theor Biol 90:213–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Leston D (1957) Spread potential and the colonisation of islands. Syst Biol 6:41–46Google Scholar
  49. Liebhold AM, Tobin PC (2008) Population ecology of insect invasions and their management. Annu Rev Entomol 53:387–408CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Liebhold AM, Work TT, McCullough DG, Cavey JF (2006) Airline baggage as a pathway for alien insect species invading the United States. Am Entomol 52:48–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Liebhold AM, Brockerhoff EG, Garrett LJ, Parke JL, Britton KO (2012) Live plant imports: the major pathway for forest insect and pathogen invasions of the US. Front Ecol Environ 10:135–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McCullough DG, Work TT, Cavey JF, Liebhold AM, Marshall D (2006) Interceptions of nonindigenous plant pests at US ports of entry and border crossings over a 17-year period. Biol Invas 8:611–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mockford EL (1971) Parthenogenesis in psocids (Insecta: Psocoptera). Am Zool 11:327–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Peck SB, Roth LM (1992) Cockroaches of the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, with descriptions of three new species (Insecta: Blattodea). Can J Zool 70:2202–2217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Price PW, Fernandes GW, Lara ACF, Brawn J, Barrios H et al (1998) Global patterns in local number of insect galling species. J Biogeogr 25:581–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Puth LM, Post DM (2005) Studying invasion: Have we missed the boat? Ecol Lett 8:715–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pyšek P (1998) Is there a taxonomic pattern to plant invasions? Oikos 82:282–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pyšek P, Richardson DM (2007) Traits associated with invasiveness in alien plants: Where do we stand? In: Nentwig W (ed) Biological invasions. Springer, Berlin, pp 97–125Google Scholar
  59. Pyšek P, Jarošík V, Pergl J (2011) Alien plants introduced by different pathways differ in invasion success: unintentional introductions as greater threat to natural areas? PLoS ONE 6:e24890CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Pyšek P, Jarošík V, Hulme PE et al (2012) A global assessment of invasive plant impacts on resident species, communities and ecosystems: the interaction of impact measures, invading species’ traits and environment. Glob Change Biol 18:1725–1737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Reichard SH, White P (2001) Horticulture as a pathway of invasive plant introductions in the United States. Bioscience 51:103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rejmánek M, Richardson DM (1996) What attributes make some plant species more invasive? Ecology 77:1655–1661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ricciardi A, Hoopes MF, Marchetti MP, Lockwood JL (2013) Progress toward understanding the ecological impacts of nonnative species. Ecol Monogr 83:263–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Richardson DM, Pyšek P (2006) Plant invasions: merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility. Prog Phys Geog 30:409–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ricklefs RE, Bermingham E (2002) The concept of the taxon cycle in biogeography. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 11:353–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Roques A (2010) Taxonomy, time and geographic patterns. Chapter 2. In: Roques A et al. (eds) Alien terrestrial arthropods of Europe. BioRisk 4(1): 11–26Google Scholar
  67. Roques A, Rabitsch W, Rasplus J-Y et al (2009) Alien terrestrial invertebrates of Europe. In: Nentwig W, Hulme P, Pyšek P, Vilà M (eds) Handbook of alien species in Europe. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 63–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sadler J (1990) Beetles, boats and biogeography. Insect invaders of the North Atlantic. Acta Archaeol 61:199–211Google Scholar
  69. Sailer RI (1978) Our immigrant insect fauna. Bull Entomol Soc Am 24:3–11Google Scholar
  70. Schneider N (2010) Psocids (Psocoptera). In: Roques A et al (eds) Alien terrestrial arthropods of Europe. BioRisk 4:793–805Google Scholar
  71. Simberloff D (1986) Introduced insects: a biogeographic and systematic perspective. In: Mooney HA, Drake JA (eds) Ecology of biological invasions of North America and Hawaii. Springer, New York, pp 3–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Simberloff D (1989) Which insect introductions succeed and which fail. In: Drake JA et al (eds) Biological invasions: a global perspective. Wiley, Chichester, pp 61–75Google Scholar
  73. Simberloff D, Martin JL, Genovesi P et al (2013) Impacts of biological invasions: what’s what and the way forward. Trends Ecol Evol 28:58–66CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Skuhravá M, Martinez M, Roques A (2010). Diptera. Chapter 10. Alien terrestrial arthropods of Europe. BioRisk 4:553–602Google Scholar
  75. Smith RM, Baker RHA, Malumphy CP et al (2007) Recent nonnative invertebrate plant pest establishments in Great Britain: origins, pathways, and trends. Agric For Entomol 9:307–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. van Kleunen M, Weber E, Fischer M (2010) A meta-analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive plant species. Ecol Lett 13:235–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Vázquez DP, Simberloff D (2001) Taxonomic selectivity in surviving introduced insects in the United States. In: Lockwood J, McKinney M (eds) Biotic homogenization. Springer, Berlin, pp 103–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yamanaka T, Morimoto N, Nishida GM, Kiritani K, Moriya S, Liebhold AM (2015) Comparison of insect invasions in North America, Japan and their islands. Biol Invas 17:3049–3061CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland (outside the USA) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew M. Liebhold
    • 1
  • Takehiko Yamanaka
    • 2
  • Alain Roques
    • 3
  • Sylvie Augustin
    • 3
  • Steven L. Chown
    • 4
  • Eckehard G. Brockerhoff
    • 5
  • Petr Pyšek
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
  1. 1.US Forest Service Northern Research StationMorgantownUSA
  2. 2.Natural Resources Inventory CenterNational Institute for Agro-Environmental SciencesTsukuba-CityJapan
  3. 3.INRA UR0633, Zoologie ForestièreOrléans CedexFrance
  4. 4.School of Biological SciencesMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  5. 5.Scion (New Zealand Forest Research Institute)ChristchurchNew Zealand
  6. 6.Institute of BotanyThe Czech Academy of SciencesPrůhoniceCzech Republic
  7. 7.Department of Ecology, Faculty of ScienceCharles University in PraguePrague 2Czech Republic
  8. 8.Department of Botany and Zoology, Centre for Invasion BiologyStellenbosch UniversityMatielandSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations