Reconstructing the invasion history of the lily leaf beetle, Lilioceris lilii, in North America
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Identifying routes of invasions of exotic organisms is an essential step to prevent further introductions and to manage established populations. The invasion of North America by the lily leaf beetle (Lilioceris lilii) is well documented, but the source(s) of the introduced population(s) and the geographical pathway(s) followed by the beetle during its progression in North America remain unknown. We used amplified fragment length polymorphism to characterize the genotype of 516 individuals across 25 locations in North America and 9 locations in Europe. Genetic clustering analyses and principal coordinate analyses revealed clear genetic differences between individuals from Canada and the USA, suggesting two different episodes of introduction in North America, a first one in Montréal, QC, Canada, in 1943 and a second one in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, in 1992. Population allocation analyses further suggested that the invasive populations of L. lilii originated from northern Europe, probably in southern United Kingdom and the western part of Germany. Finally, dates of first mentions of the beetle across North America, paired with the genetic diversity of the beetles at each location, showed that there are two separate routes of invasion of L. lilii with distinctive patterns of dispersal.
KeywordsLily leaf beetle Lilioceris lilii Invasive species Routes of invasion AFLP Populations genetic
We thank Josée Doyon, Alexandra Saad and Alexandre Leblanc for their help in the field; Audrey Bourret, Geneviève Parent, Éric Devost and Xavier Prairie for technical assistance in the laboratory; and all lily leaf beetles collectors who kindly provided samples from across Europe and North America. The Canada Research Chair in Biological Control provided financial support to this project.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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