Advertisement

Biological Invasions

, Volume 16, Issue 9, pp 1897–1914 | Cite as

Tidal and seasonal effects on survival rates of the endangered California clapper rail: does invasive Spartina facilitate greater survival in a dynamic environment?

  • Cory T. OvertonEmail author
  • Michael L. Casazza
  • John Y. Takekawa
  • Donald R. Strong
  • Marcel Holyoak
Original Paper

Abstract

Invasive species frequently degrade habitats, disturb ecosystem processes, and can increase the likelihood of extinction of imperiled populations. However, novel or enhanced functions provided by invading species may reduce the impact of processes that limit populations. It is important to recognize how invasive species benefit endangered species to determine overall effects on sensitive ecosystems. For example, since the 1990s, hybrid Spartina (Spartina foliosa × alterniflora) has expanded throughout South San Francisco Bay, USA, supplanting native vegetation and invading mudflats. The endangered California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) uses the tall, dense hybrid Spartina for cover and nesting, but the effects of hybrid Spartina on clapper rail survival was unknown. We estimated survival rates of 108 radio-marked California clapper rails in South San Francisco Bay from January 2007 to March 2010, a period of extensive hybrid Spartina eradication, with Kaplan–Meier product limit estimators. Clapper rail survival patterns were consistent with hybrid Spartina providing increased refuge cover from predators during tidal extremes which flood native vegetation, particularly during the winter when the vegetation senesces. Model averaged annual survival rates within hybrid Spartina dominated marshes before eradication (Ŝ = 0.466) were greater than the same marshes posttreatment (Ŝ = 0.275) and a marsh dominated by native vegetation (Ŝ = 0.272). However, models with and without marsh treatment as explanatory factor for survival rates had nearly equivalent support in the observed data, lending ambiguity as to whether hybrid Spartina facilitated greater survival rates than native marshland. Conservation actions to aid in recovery of this endangered species should recognize the importance of available of high tide refugia, particularly in light of invasive species eradication programs and projections of future sea-level rise.

Keywords

Invasive species Demographic bottleneck Survival Clapper rail Spartina Tides 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Tobias Rohmer, Peter Coates, Brian Halstead, and Mark Herzog for helpful suggestions in preparing this manuscript and during analyses; Peggy Olofson, Jen McBroom and the Invasive Spartina Project staff for data contributions; Steve Bobzien, Mark Taylor, and Ralph Trujillo for assistance and access to East Bay Regional Park District properties; Joy Albertson and Cheryl Strong for assistance accessing Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge properties; and Jeffrey Lewis, Whitney Thornton, Annie Shultz, Christina Crabtree, and the USGS San Francisco Bay Field Station staff for assistance with field work. We also thank Valary Bloom and Josh Hull of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for facilitating work on California clapper rails. This project was funded by the USGS Western Ecological Research Center, grants from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 8, Coastal Programs Branch and Recovery Branch and by grants from the California State Coastal Conservatory. It was also partially funded through the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project Graduate Fellowship Program. California clapper rail studies were permitted under FWS endangered species permit TE-020548, California Department of Fish and Game Memorandum of Understanding and scientific collecting permits, U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory permit 21142, and the U.S. Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center Animal Care and Use Committee. Use of trade names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply government endorsement.

Supplementary material

10530_2013_634_MOESM1_ESM.docx (37 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 36 kb)

References

  1. Adams DA, Quay TL (1958) Ecology of the Clapper rail in Southeastern North Carolina. J Wildl Manage 22:149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albertson JD (1995) Ecology of the California clapper rail in South San Francisco Bay. Thesis, San Francisco State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  3. Albertson JD, Evens JG (2000) California clapper rail. In: Olofson PR (ed) Baylands ecosystem species and community profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of key plants, fish and wildlife. San Francisco Bay Area Wetland Ecosystem Goals project. San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, Oakland, CA, pp 332–341Google Scholar
  4. Anderson DR (2001) The need to get the basics right in wildlife field studies. Wildl Soc Bull 29:1294–1297Google Scholar
  5. Ayres DR, Garci-Rossi D, Davis HG, Strong DR (1999) Extent and degree of hybridization between exotic (Spartina alterniflora) and native (S. foliosa) cordgrass (Poaceae) in California, USA determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs). Mol Ecol 8:1179–1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ayres DR, Smith DL, Zaremba K et al (2004) Spread of Exotic Cordgrasses and Hybrids (Spartina sp.) in the Tidal Marshes of San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Biol Invasions 6:221–231. doi: 10.1023/B:BINV.0000022140.07404.b7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ayres DR, Zaremba K, Sloop CM, Strong DR (2008) Sexual reproduction of cordgrass hybrids (Spartina foliosa × alterniflora) invading tidal marshes in San Francisco Bay. Diversity Distrib 14:187–195. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2007.00414.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baker HG (1965) Characteristics and modes of origin of weeds. In: Baker HG, Stebbins GL (eds) The genetics of colonizing species. Academic Press, New York, NY, pp 147–168Google Scholar
  9. Bayard TS, Elphick CS (2011) Planning for sea-level rise: quantifying patterns of Saltmarsh Sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus) nest flooding under current sea-level conditions. Auk 128:393–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bergstrom DM, Lucieer A, Kiefer K et al (2009) Indirect effects of invasive species removal devastate World Heritage Island. J Appl Ecol 46:73–81. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01601.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bertness MD (1991) Zonation of Spartina patens and Spartina alterniflora in New England saltmarsh. Ecology 72:138–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burger J (1985) Habitat selection in temperate marsh-nesting birds. In: Cody ML (ed) Habitat selection in birds. Academic Press, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  13. Burnham KP (2012) Variance components and random effects models in MARK. In: Cooch EG, White GC (eds) Program MARK: a gentle introduction. http://www.phidot.org/software/mark/docs/book/. Accessed 15 January 2013
  14. Burnham KP, Anderson DR (1998) Model selection and multimodel inference, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Callaway JC, Josselyn MN (1992) The introduction and spread of Smooth Cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) in South San Francisco Bay. Estuaries 15:218–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Casazza ML, Overton CT, Takekawa JY, Rohmer T, Navarre K (2008) Breeding behavior and dispersal of radio-marked California clapper rails. West Birds 39:101–106Google Scholar
  17. Cayan DR, Bromirski PD, Hayhoe K, Tyree M, Dettinger MD, Flick RE (2008) Climate change projections of sea level extremes along the California coast. Climatic Change 87:57–73. doi: 10.1007/s10584-007-9376-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chambers RM, Meyerson LA, Saltonstall K (1999) Expansion of Phragmites australis into tidal wetlands of North America. Aquatic Bot 64:261–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cloern JE, Hieb KA, Jacobson T, Sanso B, Di Lorenzo E, Stacey MT, Largier JL, Meiring W, Peterson WT, Powell TM, Winder M, Jassby AD (2010) Biological communities in San Francisco Bay track large-scale climate forcing over the North Pacific. Geophys Res Lett 37:L21602. doi: 10.1029/2010GL044774
  20. Cogswell HL (1977) Water birds of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  21. Conway CJ, Eddleman WR, Anderson SH, Hanebury LR (1993) Seasonal changes in Yuma clapper rail vocalization rate and habitat use. J Wildl Manage 57:282–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Crooks JA (2002) Characterizing ecosystem-level consequences of biological invasions: the role of ecosystem engineers. Oikos 97:153–166. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0706.2002.970201.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Daehler CC, Strong DR (1996) Status, prediction and prevention of introduced cordgrass Spartina spp. Invasions in Pacific estuaries, USA. Biol Conserv 78:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daehler CC, Strong DR (1997) Hybridization between introduced smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora; Poaceae) and native California cordgrass (S. foliosa) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Am J Bot 84:607–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. de Groot DS (1927) The California clapper rail its nesting habits, enemies and habitat. Condor 29:259–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dekker D, Ydenberg R (2004) Raptor predation on wintering Dunlins in relation to the tidal cycle. Condor 106:415–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dewberry (2011a) Project report for the USGS San Francisco Coastal LiDAR—ARRA LiDAR. Fairfax, Virginia. In: 2011. ftp.csc.noaa.gov/pub/crs/beachmap/qa_docs/ca/usgs/SanFranBay/usgs2010_SanFranBay_ProjectReport.pdf. Accessed 9 January 2013
  28. Dewberry (2011b) LiDAR quality assurance (QA) report San Francisco Bay LiDAR Project NOAA Coastal Services Center. ftp.csc.noaa.gov/pub/crs/beachmap/qa_docs/ca/san_francisco_bay/SF_QA_Report_3rdDelivery_110420_Final.pdf. Accessed 9 January 2013
  29. Didham RK, Tylianakis JM, Gemmell NJ, Rand TA, Ewers RM (2007) Interactive effects of habitat modification and species invasion on native species decline. Trends Ecol Evolut 22:489–496. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2007.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dwyer TJ (1972) An adjustable radio-package for ducks. Bird Banding 43:282–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eddleman WR, Conway CJ (1998) Clapper rail (Rallus longirostris). The Birds of North America, No. 240. The Birds of North America, Inc. Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  32. Faber P (2000) Grass wars: good intentions gone awry. Why would anyone bring alien cordgrass into S. F. Bay? Calif Coast Ocean 16:14–17Google Scholar
  33. Flick RE, Murray JF, Ewing LC (2003) Trends in United States tidal datum statistics and tide range. J Waterw Port C-ASCE 129:155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Foin TC, Garcia EJ, Gill RE, Culberson SD, Collins JN (1997) Recovery strategies for the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in the heavily-urbanized San Francisco estuarine ecosystem. Landsc Urban Plan 38:229–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Foxgrover AC, Jaffe BE (2005) South San Francisco Bay 2004 Topographic Lidar Survey: data overview and preliminary quality assessment. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2005-1284, Version 1.0Google Scholar
  36. Frederick P (1987) Chronic tidally-induced nest failure in a colony of white ibises. Condor 89:413–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frederick PC, Collopy MW (1989) The role of predation in determining reproductive success of Colonoially nesting wading birds in the Florida Everglades. Condor 91:860–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gaines KF, Cumbee JC Jr, Stephens WL Jr (2003) Nest characteristics of the California clapper rail in coastal Georgia. J Field Ornithol 74:152–156Google Scholar
  39. Garcia EJ (1995) Conservation of the California clapper rail: an analysis of survey methods and habitat use in Marin County. Dissertation, University of California-DavisGoogle Scholar
  40. Gelman A, Hill J (2006) Data analysis using regression and multilevel/hierarchical models. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gjerdrum C, Elphick CS, Rubega M (2005) Nest site selection and nesting success in saltmarsh breeding sparrows: the importance of nest habitat, timing, and study site differences. Condor 107:849–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Goals Project (1999) Baylands ecosystem habitat goals. A report of habitat recommendations prepared by the San Francisco Bay Area Wetlands Ecosystem Goals project. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, California/San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, Oakland, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  43. Goodenough AE (2010) Are the ecological impacts of alien species misrepresented? A review of the “native good, alien bad” philosophy. Community Ecol 11:13–21. doi: 10.1556/ComEc.11.2010.1.3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Greenberg R, Maldonado JE (2006) Diversity and endemism in tidal-marsh vertebrates. In: Greenberg R, Maldonado JE, Droege S, Mcdonald MV (eds) Terrestrial vertebrates of tidal marshes: ecology, evolution, and conservation. Stud Avian Biol Ser 32:2–53Google Scholar
  45. Grosholz ED, Levin LA, Tyler AC, Neira C (2009) Changes in community structure and ecosystem function following Spartina alterniflora invasion of Pacific estuaries. In: Silliman BR, Bertness MD, Grosholtz ED (eds) Human impacts on saltmarshes—a global perspective. University of California, Berkeley, CA, pp 23–40Google Scholar
  46. Harding EK, Doak DF, Albertson JD (2001) Evaluating the effectiveness of predator control: the non-native red fox as a case study. Conserv Biol 15:1114–1122. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.2001.0150041114.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Harvey TE (1988) Breeding biology of the California clapper rail in South San Francisco Bay. Trans West Sec Wildl Soc 24:98–104Google Scholar
  48. He Y, Li X, Craft C, Ma Z, Sun Y (2011) Relationships between vegetation zonation and environmental factors in newly formed tidal marshes of the Yangtze River estuary. Wetl Ecol Manage 19:341–349. doi: 10.1007/s11273-011-9220-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hinde HP (1954) The vertical distribution of saltmarsh phanerogams in relation to tide levels. Ecol Monogr 24:209–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hogle I (2011) San Francisco estuary invasive Spartina project monitoring report for 2010. Report to State Coastal Conservancy, Oakland, CA. http://www.spartina.org/project_documents/2010_MonReport.htm Accessed 17 Jan 2013
  51. Hopkins DR, Parker VT (1984) A study of the seed bank of a saltmarsh in Northern San Francisco Bay. Am J Bot 71:348–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Invasive Spartina Project (2003) San Francisco estuary invasive Spartina project: Spartina control program. Volume 1: final programmatic environmental impact statement/environmental impact report. State Clearinghouse #2001042058. California Coastal Conservancy and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Oakland, CAGoogle Scholar
  53. Jacqmin-Gadda H, Sibillot S, Proust C, Molina J, Thiebaut R (2007) Robustness of the linear mixed model to misspecified error distribution. Comp Stat Data Anal 51:5142–5154. doi: 10.1016/j.csda.2006.05.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaplan EL, Meier P (1958) Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc 53:457–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kozicky EL, Schmidt FV (1949) Nesting habits of the Clapper rail in New Jersey. Auk 66:355–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lewis JC, Sallee KL, Golightly RT Jr (1999) Introduction and range expansion of nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in California. Am Midl Nat 142:372–381. doi: 10.1674/0003-0031(1999)142 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Liu L, Wood J, Nur N, Stralberg D, Herzog M (2009) California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) population monitoring: 2005-2008. Report to California Department of Fish and Game, Stockton, CAGoogle Scholar
  58. Marvier M, Kareiva P, Neubert MG (2004) Habitat destruction, fragmentation, and disturbance promote invasion by habitat generalists in a multispecies metapopulation. Risk Anal 24:869–878. doi: 10.1111/j.0272-4332.2004.00485.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McBroom J (2012) California clapper rail surveys for the San Francisco estuary invasive Spartina project 2012. Report to State Coastal Conservancy, Oakland, CA. http://www.spartina.org/project_documents/revegetation_program/CLRA%20Report%202012.pdf. Accessed 17 Jan 2013
  60. Meanley B (1985) The marsh hen: a natural history of the Clapper Rail of the Atlantic coast saltmarsh. Tidewater Publishers, Centreville, MDGoogle Scholar
  61. Nagelkerke NJD (1991) A note on a general definition of the coefficient of determination. Biometrika 78:691–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2009) Sea level variations of the United States 1854–2006. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Ocean Service, Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services, Silver Spring, MDGoogle Scholar
  63. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2011) Tides and currents. In: 2011. http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov. Accessed 11 March 2011
  64. Overton CT, Casazza ML, Takekawa JY, Rohmer TM (2009) Sexing California clapper rails using morphological measurements. North Am Bird Bander 34:14–20Google Scholar
  65. Paxton EH, Sogge MK, Durst SL, Theimer TC, Hatten J (2007) The ecology of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher in Central Arizona: a 10-year synthesis report. USGS open-file report 2007-1381. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1381/. Accessed 13 June 2013
  66. Paxton EH, Theimer TC, Sogge MK (2011) Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States. Condor 113:255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pierluissi S (2010) Breeding waterbirds in rice fields: a global review. Waterbirds 33:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pollock KH, Winterstein SR, Bunck CM, Curtis PD (1989) Survival analysis in telemetry studies: the staggered entry design. J Wildl Manage 53:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Redfield AC (1972) Development of a New England saltmarsh. Ecol Monogr 42:201–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Richardson DM, Pyšek P (2006) Plant invasions: merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility. Prog Phys Geogr 30:409–431. doi: 10.1191/0309133306pp490pr CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rodriguez LF (2006) Can invasive species facilitate native species? Evidence of how, when, and why these impacts occur. Biol Invasions 8:927–939. doi: 10.1007/s10530-005-5103-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rohmer TM (2010) Tracking the California clapper rail: a home range study in anticipation of imminent habitat change. Thesis, University of California-DavisGoogle Scholar
  73. Rosa S, Encarnação AL, Granadeiro JP, Palmeirim JM (2006) High water roost selection by waders: maximizing feeding opportunities or avoiding predation? Ibis 148:88–97. doi: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.2006.00497.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rosso PH, Ustin SL, Hastings A (2006) Use of lidar to study changes associated with Spartina invasion in San Francisco Bay marshes. Remote Sens Environ 100:295–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rush SA, Mordecai R, Woodrey MS, Cooper RJ (2010) Prey and habitat influences the movement of clapper rails in Northern Gulf coast estuaries. Waterbirds 33:389–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schwarzbach SE, Albertson JD, Thomas CM (2006) Effects of predation, flooding, and contamination on reproductive success of California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in San Francisco Bay. Auk 123:45–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sloop CM, Ayres DR, Strong DR (2009) The rapid evolution of self-fertility in Spartina hybrids (Spartina alterniflora × foliosa) invading San Francisco Bay, CA. Biol Invasions 11:1131–1144. doi: 10.1007/s10530-008-9385-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sogge MK, Paxton EH, van Ripper IIIC (2013) Tamarisk in riparian woodlands: a bird’s eye view. In: Sher A, Quigley MF (eds) A case study of ecological change in the American West. Oxford University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  79. Stachowicz JJ (2001) Mutualism, facilitation, and the structure of ecological communities. Bioscience 51:235–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Stralberg D, Brennan M, Callaway JC, Wood JK, Schile LM, Jongsomjit D, Kelly M, Parker VT (2011) Evaluating tidal marsh sustainability in the face of sea-level rise: a hybrid modeling approach applied to San Francisco Bay. PLoS ONE 6(11):e27388. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027388 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Strong DR, Ayres DR (2009) Spartina introductions and consequences in saltmarshes: arrive, survive, thrive, and sometimes hybridize. In: Silliman BR, Grosholz T, Bertness MD (eds) Saltmarshes under global siege. University of California Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  82. Strong DR, Ayres DR (2013) Ecological and evolutionary misadventures of Spartina. Ann Rev Ecol Evol Syst 44:389–410. doi: 10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110512-135803 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Swanson KM, Drexler JZ, Schoellhamer DH, Thorne KM, Casazza ML, Overton CT, Callaway JC, Takekawa JY (2013) Wetland accretion rate model of ecosystem resilience (WARMER) and its application to habitat sustainability for endangered species in the San Francisco Estuary. doi: 10.1007/s12237-013-9694-0
  84. Sydeman WJ, Santora JA, Thompson SA, Marinovic B, Di Lorenzo E (2013) Increasing variance in North Pacific climate relates to unprecedented ecosystem variability off California. Glob Change Biol 19:1662–1675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Takekawa JY, Woo I, Gardiner R, Casazza M, Ackerman JT, Nur N, Liu L, Spautz H (2011) Avian communities in tidal saltmarshes of San Francisco Bay. San Franc Watershed Estuary Sci 9:1–24Google Scholar
  86. Takekawa JY, Thorne KM, Buffington KJ, Spragens KA, Swanson KM, Drexler JZ, Schollhamer DH, Overton CT, Casazza ML (2013) Final report for seas-level rise response modeling for San Francisco Bay estuary tidal marshes. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2013-1081Google Scholar
  87. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (2010) Draft recovery plan for tidal marsh ecosystems of Northern and Central California. U.S. Department of Interior, Sacramento, CAGoogle Scholar
  88. van de Pol M, Ens BJ, Heg D et al (2010) Do changes in the frequency, magnitude and timing of extreme climatic events threaten the population viability of coastal birds? J Appl Ecol 47:720–730. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01842.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vitousek PM (1990) Biological invasions and ecosystem processes: towards an integration of population biology and ecosystem studies. Oikos 57:7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Vitousek PM, D’Antonio CM, Loope LL, Rejmanek M, Westbrooks R (1997) Introduced species: a significant component of human-caused global environmental change. New Zeal J Ecol 21:1–16Google Scholar
  91. Watling JI, Hickman CR, Orrock JL (2011) Invasive shrub alters native forest amphibian communities. Biol Conserv 144:2597–2601. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.07.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. White GC, Burnham KP (1999) Program MARK: survival estimation from populations of marked animals. Bird Study 46:120–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. White EM, Wilson JC, Clarke AR (2006) Biotic indirect effects: a neglected concept in invasion biology. Diversity Distrib 12:443–455. doi: 10.1111/j.1366-9516.2006.00265.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Whitfield DP (2003) Redshank Tringa totanus flocking behaviour, distance from cover and vulnerability to sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus predation. J Avian Biol 34:163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wilkinson GS, Debban KR (1980) Habitat preferences of wintering diurnal raptors in the Sacramento Valley. West Birds 11:25–34Google Scholar
  96. Zedler JB, Kercher S (2004) Causes and consequences of invasive plants in wetlands: opportunities, opportunists, and outcomes. Crit Rev Plant Sci 23:431–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zembal R, Hoffman SM, Konecny J (2009) Status and distribution of the Light-footed clapper rail in California. Final report to California Department of Fish and Game Non-game Wildlife Program, 2009-01. Sacramento, CAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cory T. Overton
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael L. Casazza
    • 1
  • John Y. Takekawa
    • 2
  • Donald R. Strong
    • 3
  • Marcel Holyoak
    • 4
  1. 1.U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research CenterDixon Field StationDixonUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research CenterSan Francisco Estuary Field StationVallejoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Evolution and EcologyUniversity of California-DavisDavisUSA
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Science and PolicyUniversity of California-DavisDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations