Biological Invasions

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 645–661 | Cite as

Invasive belowground mutualists of woody plants

  • Martin A. Nuñez
  • Ian A. Dickie
Original Paper


Most plants require mutualistic associations to survive, which can be an important limitation on their ability to become invasive. There are four strategies that permit plants to become invasive without being limited by a lack of mutualists. One is to not be dependent on mutualists. The other three strategies are to form novel mutualisms, form associations with cosmopolitan species, or co-invade with mutualists from their native range. Historically there has been a bias to study mutualisms from a plant perspective, with little consideration of soil biota as invasive species in their own right. Here we address this by reviewing the literature on belowground invasive mutualists of woody plants. We focus on woody invaders as ecosystem-transforming plants that frequently have a high dependence on belowground mutualists. We found that co-invasions are common, with many ectomycorrhizal plant species and N-fixing species co-invading with their mutualists. Other groups, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, tend to associate with cosmopolitan fungal species or to form novel associations in their exotic range. Only limited evidence exists of direct negative effects of co-invading mutualists on native mutualist communities, and effects on native plants appear to be largely driven by altered environmental conditions rather than direct interactions. Mutualists that introduce novel ecosystem functions have effects greater than would be predicted based solely on their biomass. Focusing on the belowground aspects of plant invasions provides novel insights into the impacts, processes and management of invasions of both soil organisms and woody plant species.


Biological invasions Co-invasion Cosmopolitan species Co-xenic Mutualism Mycorrhiza Novel interactions Soil biota Tree invasions 



We thank the attendees from the workshop on tree invasion (held in Isla Victoria in September 2012); Duane Peltzer, Jeremy Hayward and Romina Dimarco for helpful comments on early versions of the paper; Kabir Peay, Matt McGlone, Simon Fowler, and Jamie Wood for helpful input. IAD was supported by Core funding for Crown Research Institutes from the New Zealand Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment’s Science and Innovation Group. MN was supported by the National Science Foundation (DEB 0948930).

Supplementary material

10530_2013_612_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (64 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 63 kb)


  1. Allison SD, Nielsen C, Hughes RF (2006) Elevated enzyme activities in soils under the invasive nitrogen-fixing tree Falcataria moluccana. Soil Biol Biochem 38:1537–1544Google Scholar
  2. Allsopp N, Holmes PM (2001) The impact of alien plant invasion on mycorrhizas in mountain fynbos vegetation. S Afr J Bot 67:150–156Google Scholar
  3. Andrus AD, Andam C, Parker MA (2012) American origin of Cupriavidus bacteria associated with invasive Mimosa legumes in the Philippines. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 80(3):747–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashkannejhad S, Horton TR (2006) Ectomycorrhizal ecology under primary succession on coastal sand dunes: interactions involving Pinus contorta, suilloid fungi and deer. New Phytol 169:345–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Asner GP, Martin RE, Knapp DE et al (2010) Effects of Morella faya tree invasion on aboveground carbon storage in Hawaii. Biol Invasions 12:477–494Google Scholar
  6. Atwood TB, Wiegner TN, Turner JP et al (2010) Potential effects of an invasive nitrogen-fixing tree on a Hawaiian stream food web. Pac Sci 64:367–379Google Scholar
  7. Bagley SJ, Orlovich DA (2004) Genet size and distribution of Amanita muscaria in a suburban park, Dunedin, New Zealand. NZ J Bot 42:939–947Google Scholar
  8. Bahram M, Kõljalg U, Kohout P et al (2012) Ectomycorrhizal fungi of exotic pine plantations in relation to native host trees in Iran: evidence of host range expansion by local symbionts to distantly related host taxa. Mycorrhiza 23:11–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barroetaveña C, Cázares E, Rajchenberg M (2007) Ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir: a comparison of species richness in native western North American forests and Patagonian plantations from Argentina. Mycorrhiza 17:355–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beauchamp VB, Stromberg JC, Stutz JC (2005) Interactions between Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar), Populus fremontii (cottonwood), and mycorrhizal fungi: effects on seedling growth and plant species coexistence. Plant Soil 275:221–231Google Scholar
  11. Benson DR, Dawson JO (2007) Recent advances in the biogeography and genecology of symbiotic Frankia and its host plants. Physiol Plant 130:318–330Google Scholar
  12. Blackburn TM, Pysek P, Bacher S et al (2011) A proposed unified framework for biological invasions. Trends Ecol Evol 26:333–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonito G, Trappe JM, Donovan S et al (2011) The Asian black truffle Tuber indicum can form ectomycorrhizas with North American host plants and complete its life cycle in non-native soils. Fungal Ecol 4:83–93Google Scholar
  14. Brundrett MC (2009) Mycorrhizal associations and other means of nutrition of vascular plants: understanding the global diversity of host plants by resolving conflicting information and developing reliable means of diagnosis. Plant Soil 320:37–77Google Scholar
  15. Bruns TD, Peay KG, Boynton PJ et al (2009) Inoculum potential of Rhizopogon spores increases with time over the first 4 yr of a 99-yr spore burial experiment. New Phytol 181:463–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Caldwell BA (2006) Effects of invasive scotch broom on soil properties in a Pacific coastal prairie soil. Appl Soil Ecol 32:149–152Google Scholar
  17. Callaway RM, Bedmar EJ, Reinhart KO et al (2011) Effects of soil biota from different ranges on Robinia invasion: acquiring mutualists and escaping pathogens. Ecology 92:1027–1035PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Carino DA, Daehler CC (2002) Can inconspicuous legumes facilitate alien grass invasions? Partridge peas and fountain grass in Hawai’i. Ecography 25:33–41Google Scholar
  19. Chapela IH, Osher LJ, Horton TR et al (2001) Ectomycorrhizal fungi introduced with exotic pine plantations induce soil carbon depletion. Soil Biol Biochem 33:1733–1740Google Scholar
  20. Chen C, Condron L, Xu Z (2008) Impacts of grassland afforestation with coniferous trees on soil phosphorus dynamics and associated microbial processes: a review. For Ecol Manag 255:396–409Google Scholar
  21. Cipollini D, Rigsby CM, Barto EK (2012) Microbes as targets and mediators of allelopathy in plants. J Chem Ecol 38:714–727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Crooks JA (2005) Lag times and exotic species: the ecology and management of biological invasions in slow-motion. Ecoscience 12:316–329Google Scholar
  23. Crooks JA, Soule ME (1999) Lag times in population explosions of invasive species: causes and implications. In: Sandlund OT, Schei PJ, Viken A (eds) Invasive species and biodiversity management. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, pp 103–125Google Scholar
  24. Cuassolo F, Balseiro E, Modenutti B (2012) Alien vs. native plants in a Patagonian wetland: elemental ratios and ecosystem stoichiometric impacts. Biol Invasions 14:179–189Google Scholar
  25. De Wit R, Bouvier T (2006) ‘Everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects’; what did Baas Becking and Beijerinck really say? Environ Microbiol 8:755–758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. DeCant JP (2008) Russian olive, Elaeagnus angustifolia, alters patterns in soil nitrogen pools along the Rio Grande River, New Mexico, USA. Wetlands 28:896–904Google Scholar
  27. Denison RF, Kiers ET (2004) Lifestyle alternatives for rhizobia: mutualism, parasitism, and forgoing symbiosis. FEMS Microbiol Lett 237:187–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dickie IA, Johnson P (2009) Invasive fungi research priorities, with a focus on Amanita muscaria. Landcare Research Contract ReportL LC0809/027, Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand. Accessed 24 June 2013
  29. Dickie IA, Bolstridge N, Cooper JA et al (2010) Co-invasion by Pinus and its mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol 187:475–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dickie IA, Yeates GW, St J, Mark G et al (2011) Ecosystem service and biodiversity trade-offs in two woody successions. J Appl Ecol 48:926–934Google Scholar
  31. Diez J (2005) Invasion biology of Australian ectomycorrhizal fungi introduced with eucalypt plantations into the Iberian Peninsula. Biol Invasions 7:3–15Google Scholar
  32. Diez J, Dickie I, Edwards G et al (2010) Negative soil feedbacks accumulate over time for non-native plant species. Ecol Lett 13:803–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dunk CW, Lebel T, Keane PJ (2012) Characterisation of ectomycorrhizal formation by the exotic fungus Amanita muscaria with Nothofagus cunninghamii in Victoria, Australia. Mycorrhiza 22:135–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ehrenfeld JG (2010) Ecosystem consequences of biological invasions. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 41:59–80Google Scholar
  35. Fogarty G, Facelli JM (1999) Growth and competition of Cytisus scoparius, an invasive shrub, and Australian native shrubs. Plant Ecol 144:27–35Google Scholar
  36. Ganzert M, Felgenhauer N, Zilker T (2005) Indication of liver transplantation following amatoxin intoxication. J Hepatol 42:202–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gómez-Aparicio L, Canham CD (2008) Neighborhood models of the effects of invasive tree species on ecosystem processes. Ecol Monogr 78:69–86Google Scholar
  38. Grman E, Suding K (2010) Within-year soil legacies contribute to strong priority effects of exotics on native California grassland communities. Restor Ecol 18:664–670Google Scholar
  39. Guo L, Gifford R (2002) Soil carbon stocks and land use change: a meta analysis. Glob Change Biol 8:345–360Google Scholar
  40. Hanley ME, Goulson D (2003) Introduced weeds pollinated by introduced bees: cause or effect? Weed Biol Manag 3:204–212Google Scholar
  41. Haubensak KA, D’Antonio CM (2011) The importance of nitrogen-fixation for an invader of a coastal California grassland. Biol Invasions 13:1275–1282Google Scholar
  42. Herriott E (1919) A history of Hagley Park, Christchurch, with special reference to its botany. Trans Proc R Soc NZ 51:427–447Google Scholar
  43. Hickey B, Osborne B (1998) Effect of Gunnera tinctoria (Molina) Mirbel on semi-natural grassland habitats in the west of Ireland. In: Starfinger U, Edwards K, Kowarik I, Williamson M (eds) Plant invasions: ecological mechanisms and human responses. Backhuys, Leiden, pp 195–208Google Scholar
  44. Hickman J, Wu S, Mickley L et al (2010) Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:10115–10119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hynson NA, Merckx VSFT, Perry BA et al (2013) Identities and distributions of the co-invading ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts of exotic pines in the Hawaiian Islands. Biol Invasions. doi: 10.1007/s10530-013-0458-3 Google Scholar
  46. Johnson NC, Graham JH, Smith FA (1997) Functioning of mycorrhizal associations along the mutualism–parasitism continuum. New Phytol 135:575–586Google Scholar
  47. Johnston PR (2010) Causes and consequences of changes to New Zealand’s fungal biota. NZ J Ecol 34:175–184Google Scholar
  48. Jovanovic N, Israel S, Tredoux G et al (2009) Nitrogen dynamics in land cleared of alien vegetation (Acacia saligna) and impacts on groundwater at Riverlands Nature Reserve (Western Cape, South Africa). Water S Afr 35:37–44Google Scholar
  49. Klironomos JN (2003) Variation in plant response to native and exotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Ecology 84:2292–2301Google Scholar
  50. Knapp DG, Pintye A, Kovács GM (2012) The dark side is not fastidious—dark septate endophytic fungi of native and invasive plants of semiarid sandy areas. PLoS One 7(2):e32570. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032570 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Koele N, Dickie IA, Oleksyn J et al (2012) No globally consistent effect of ectomycorrhizal status on foliar traits. New Phytol 196:845–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kranabetter JM, Stoehr MU, O’Neill GA (2012) Divergence in ectomycorrhizal communities with foreign Douglas-fir populations and implications for assisted migration. Ecol Appl 22:550–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Ledgard N (2001) The spread of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta, Dougl.) in New Zealand. For Ecol Manag 141:43–57Google Scholar
  54. Levine JM, Adler PB, Yelenik SG (2004) A meta-analysis of biotic resistance to exotic plant invasions. Ecol Lett 7:975–989Google Scholar
  55. Liu XY, Wei S, Wang F et al (2012) Burkholderia and Cupriavidus spp. are the preferred symbionts of Mimosa spp. in Southern China. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 80:417–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Macdonald C, Thomas N, Robinson L et al (2009) Physiological, biochemical and molecular responses of the soil microbial community after afforestation of pastures with Pinus radiata. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1642–1651Google Scholar
  57. Malcolm GM, Bush DS, Rice SK (2008) Soil nitrogen conditions approach preinvasion levels following restoration of nitrogen-fixing black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) stands in a pine–oak ecosystem. Restor Ecol 16:70–78Google Scholar
  58. Maron JL, Connors PG (1996) A native nitrogen-fixing shrub facilitates weed invasion. Oecologia 105:302–312Google Scholar
  59. McKey DB, Kaufmann SC (1991) Naturalization of exotic Ficus species (Moraceae) in south Florida. Tech Rep, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  60. Meinhardt KA, Gehring CA (2012) Disrupting mycorrhizal mutualisms: a potential mechanism by which exotic tamarisk outcompetes native cottonwoods. Ecol Appl 22:532–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Mikola P (1970) Mycorrhizal inoculation in afforestation. Int Rev For Res 3:123–196Google Scholar
  62. Mineau MM, Baxter CV, Marcarelli AM (2011) A non-native riparian tree (Elaeagnus angustifolia) changes nutrient dynamics in streams. Ecosystems 14:353–365Google Scholar
  63. Moora M, Berger S, Davison J et al (2011) Alien plants associate with widespread generalist arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal taxa: evidence from a continental-scale study using massively parallel 454 sequencing. J Biogeogr 38:1305–1317Google Scholar
  64. Motiejunaite J, Kasparavicius J, Kacergius A (2011) Boletellus projectellus—an alien mycorrhizal bolete new to Europe. Sydowia 63:203–213Google Scholar
  65. Murat C, Zampieri E, Vizzini A et al (2008) Is the Perigord black truffle threatened by an invasive species? We dreaded it and it has happened! New Phytol 178:699–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Nadel H, Frank JH, Knight RJ (1992) Escapees and accomplices: the naturalization of exotic Ficus and their associated faunas in Florida. Fla Nat 75:29–38Google Scholar
  67. Nguyen NH, Hynson NA, Bruns TD (2012) Stayin’ alive: survival of mycorrhizal fungal propagules from 6-yr-old forest soil. Fungal Ecol 5:741–746Google Scholar
  68. Nuñez MA, Horton TR, Simberloff D (2009) Lack of belowground mutualisms hinders Pinaceae invasions. Ecology 90:2352–2359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Orlovich DA, Cairney JWG (2004) Ectomycorrhizal fungi in New Zealand: current perspectives and future directions. NZ J Bot 42:721–738Google Scholar
  70. Orwin K, Kirschbaum M, St John M et al (2011) Organic nutrient uptake by mycorrhizal fungi enhances ecosystem carbon storage: a model-based assessment. Ecol Lett 14:493–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Parker MA, Wurtz AK, Paynter Q (2007) Nodule symbiosis of invasive Mimosa pigra in Australia and in ancestral habitats: a comparative analysis. Biol Invasions 9:127–138Google Scholar
  72. Peay KG, Bruns TD, Kennedy PG et al (2007) A strong species–area relationship for eukaryotic soil microbes: island size matters for ectomycorrhizal fungi. Ecol Lett 10:470–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Peay KG, Kennedy PG, Bruns TD (2008) Fungal community ecology: a hybrid beast with a molecular master. Bioscience 58:799–810Google Scholar
  74. Peay KG, Bidartondo MI, Arnold AE (2010) Not every fungus is everywhere: scaling to the biogeography of fungal–plant interactions across roots, shoots and ecosystems. New Phytol 185:878–882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Peay KG, Schubert MG, Nguyen NH et al (2012) Measuring ectomycorrhizal fungal dispersal: macroecological patterns driven by microscopic propagules. Mol Ecol 21:4122–4136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Peltzer D, Bellingham P, Kurokawa H et al (2009) Punching above their weight: low-biomass non-native plant species alter soil properties during primary succession. Oikos 118:1001–1014Google Scholar
  77. Pinson C, Daya M, Benner K et al (1990) Liver transplantation for severe Amanita phalloides mushroom poisoning. Am J Surg 159:493–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Porter SS, Stanton ML, Rice KJ (2011) Mutualism and adaptive divergence: co-invasion of a heterogeneous grassland by an exotic legume–rhizobium symbiosis. PLoS One 6(12):e27935. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027935 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Pringle A, Vellinga EC (2006) Last chance to know? Using literature to explore the biogeography and invasion biology of the death cap mushroom Amanita phalloides (Vaill. ex Fr. :Fr.) Link. Biol Invasions 8:1131–1144Google Scholar
  80. Pringle A, Adams RI, Cross HB et al (2009a) The ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides was introduced and is expanding its range on the west coast of North America. Mol Ecol 18:817–833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Pringle A, Bever JD, Gardes M et al (2009b) Mycorrhizal symbioses and plant invasions. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 40:699–715Google Scholar
  82. Ramirez BW, Montero SJ (1988) Ficus microcarpa L., F. benjamina, and other species introduced in the New World, their pollinators (Agaonidae) and other fig wasps. Rev Biol Trop 36:441–446Google Scholar
  83. Reinhart KO, Callaway RM (2006) Soil biota and invasive plants. New Phytol 170:445–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rejmánek M, Richardson DM (1996) What attributes make some plant species more invasive? Ecology 77:1655–1661Google Scholar
  85. Rejmánek M, Richardson DM (2013) Trees and shrubs as invasive alien species—2013 update of the global database. Divers Distrib 19:1093–1094Google Scholar
  86. Rice SK, Westerman B, Federici R (2004) Impacts of the exotic, nitrogen-fixing black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) on nitrogen-cycling in a pine–oak ecosystem. Plant Ecol 174:97–107Google Scholar
  87. Richardson DM (1998) Forestry trees as invasive aliens. Conserv Biol 12:18–26Google Scholar
  88. Richardson DM, Higgins SI (1998) Pines as invaders in the southern hemisphere. In: Richardson DM (ed) Ecology and biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 450–473Google Scholar
  89. Richardson DM, Rejmánek M (2004) Conifers as invasive aliens: a global survey and predictive framework. Divers Distrib 10:321–331Google Scholar
  90. Richardson DM, Allsopp N, D’Antonio CM et al (2000) Plant invasions—the role of mutualisms. Biol Rev 75:65–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Rodriguez-Echeverria S (2010) Rhizobial hitchhikers from Down Under: invasional meltdown in a plant–bacteria mutualism? J Biogeogr 37:1611–1622Google Scholar
  92. Rodriguez-Echeverria S, Crisostomo JA, Nabais C et al (2009) Belowground mutualists and the invasive ability of Acacia longifolia in coastal dunes of Portugal. Biol Invasions 11:651–661Google Scholar
  93. Rodriguez-Echeverria S, Le Roux JJ, Crisostomo JA et al (2011) Jack-of-all-trades and master of many? How does associated rhizobial diversity influence the colonization success of Australian Acacia species? Divers Distrib 17:946–957Google Scholar
  94. Rodriguez-Echeverria S, Fajardo S, Ruiz-Diez B et al (2012) Differential effectiveness of novel and old legume–rhizobia mutualisms: implications for invasion by exotic legumes. Oecologia 170:253–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Rook EJ, Fischer DG, Seyferth RD et al (2011) Responses of prairie vegetation to fire, herbicide, and invasive species legacy. Northwest Sci 85:288–302Google Scholar
  96. Rosendahl S, Mcgee P, Morton JB (2009) Lack of global population genetic differentiation in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae suggests a recent range expansion which may have coincided with the spread of agriculture. Mol Ecol 18:4316–4329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Rout M, Callaway R (2009) An invasive plant paradox. Science 324:734–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Salgado Salomon ME, Barroetavena C, Rajchenberg M (2011) Do pine plantations provide mycorrhizal inocula for seedlings establishment in grasslands from Patagonia, Argentina? New For 41:191–205Google Scholar
  99. Schwartz MW, Hoeksema JD, Gehring CA et al (2006) The promise and the potential consequences of the global transport of mycorrhizal fungal inoculum. Ecol Lett 9:501–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Shaben J, Myers JH (2010) Relationships between Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius), soil nutrients, and plant diversity in the Garry oak savannah ecosystem. Plant Ecol 207:81–91Google Scholar
  101. Simberloff D, Nuñez MA, Ledgard NJ et al (2010) Spread and impact of introduced conifers in South America: lessons from other southern hemisphere regions. Austral Ecol 35:489–504Google Scholar
  102. Simonet P, Navarro E, Rouvier C et al (1999) Co-evolution between Frankia populations and host plants in the family Casuarinaceae and consequent patterns of global dispersal. Environ Microbiol 1:525–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Smith SE, Read DJ (2008) Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  104. Spence LA, Dickie IA, Coomes DA (2011) Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculum potential: a mechanism promoting positive diversity–invasibility relationships in mountain beech forests in New Zealand? Mycorrhiza 21:309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. St John MG, Bellingham PJ, Walker LR et al (2012) Loss of a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub in primary succession: consequences for plant and below-ground communities. J Ecol 100:1074–1084Google Scholar
  106. Sullivan J (2013) Inadvertent biological control: an Australian thrips killing an invasive New Zealand tree in Callifornia. Biol Invasions. doi: 10.1007/s10530-013-0532-x
  107. Tateno R, Tokuchi N, Yamanaka N et al (2007) Comparison of litterfall production and leaf litter decomposition between an exotic black locust plantation and an indigenous oak forest near Yan’an on the Loess Plateau, China. For Ecol Manag 241:84–90Google Scholar
  108. Tedersoo L, Suvi T, Beaver K, Kõljalg U (2007) Ectomycorrhizal fungi of the Seychelles: diversity patterns and host shifts from the native Vateriopsis seychellarum (Dipterocarpaceae) and Intsia bijuga (Caesalpiniaceae) to the introduced Eucalyptus robusta (Myrtaceae), but not Pinus caribea (Pinaceae). New Phytol 175:321–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Thiele J, Isermann M, Otte A et al (2010) Competitive displacement or biotic resistance? Disentangling relationships between community diversity and invasion success of tall herbs and shrubs. J Veg Sci 21:213–220Google Scholar
  110. Trim G, Lepp H, Hall M et al (1999) Poisoning by Amanita phalloides (“deathcap”) mushrooms in the Australian Capital Territory. Med J Aust 171:247–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Tsai J-K, Sun H-T, Chen C-F et al (2010) The impact of naturalized legumes on plant communities in Northern Taiwan: are we worrying too much? Plant Ecol 211:171–180Google Scholar
  112. Tye DRC, Drake DC (2012) An exotic Australian Acacia fixes more N than a coexisting indigenous Acacia in a South African riparian zone. Plant Ecol 213:251–257Google Scholar
  113. van der Putten WH, Klironomos JN, Wardle DA (2007) Microbial ecology of biological invasions. ISME J 1:28–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Van R, Laura C, Larson DL (2009) Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities. Plant Ecol 200:129–139Google Scholar
  115. Vellinga EC, Wolfe BE, Pringle A (2009) Global patterns of ectomycorrhizal introductions. New Phytol 181:960–973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Vitousek P, Walker L, Whiteaker L et al (1987) Biological invasion by Myrica faya alters ecosystem development in Hawaii. Science 238:802–804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Von Holle B, Joseph KA, Largay EF et al (2006) Facilitations between the introduced nitrogen-fixing tree, Robinia pseudoacacia, and nonnative plant species in the glacial outwash upland ecosystem of Cape Cod, MA. Biodivers Conserv 15:2197–2215Google Scholar
  118. Wang B, Qiu YL (2006) Phylogenetic distribution and evolution of mycorrhizas in land plants. Mycorrhiza 16:299–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Wei GH, Chen WM, Zhu WF et al (2009) Invasive Robinia pseudoacacia in China is nodulated by Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium species that share similar nodulation genes with native American symbionts. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 68:320–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Weir BS, Turner SJ, Silvester WB et al (2004) Unexpectedly diverse Mesorhizobium strains and Rhizobium leguminosarum nodulate native legume genera of New Zealand, while introduced legume weeds are nodulated by Bradyrhizobium species. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:5980–5987PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Williamson M, Fitter A (1996) The varying success of invaders. Ecology 77:1661–1666Google Scholar
  122. Wolf J, Beatty S, Seastedt T (2004) Soil characteristics of Rocky Mountain National Park grasslands invaded by Melilotus officinalis and M. alba. J Biogeogr 31:415–424Google Scholar
  123. Wolfe BE, Pringle A (2012) Geographically structured host specificity is caused by the range expansions and host shifts of a symbiotic fungus. ISME J 6:745–755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Wolfe BE, Richard F, Cross HB et al (2010) Distribution and abundance of the introduced ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides in North America. New Phytol 185:803–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Yelenik SG, Stock WD, Richardson DM (2007) Functional group identity does not predict invader impacts: differential effects of nitrogen-fixing exotic plants on ecosystem function. Biol Invasions 9:117–125Google Scholar
  126. Zenni RD, Nuñez MA (2013) The elephant in the room: the role of failed invasions in understanding invasion biology. Oikos 122:801–815Google Scholar
  127. Zhang Q, Yang RY, Tang JJ et al (2010) Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion. PLoS One 5(8):e12380. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012380 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Zimpfer J, Kennedy G, Smyth C et al (1999) Localization of Casuarina-infective Frankia near Casuarina cunninghamiana trees in Jamaica. Can J Bot 77:1248–1256Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratorio Ecotono, INIBIOMACONICET-Universidad Nacional del ComahueBarilocheArgentina
  2. 2.Landcare ResearchLincolnNew Zealand
  3. 3.Bio-Protection Research CentreLincoln UniversityLincolnNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations