Biological Invasions

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 153–166 | Cite as

Tracing the origin of US brown marmorated stink bugs, Halyomorpha halys

  • Jiawu Xu
  • Dina M. Fonseca
  • George C. Hamilton
  • Kim A. Hoelmer
  • Anne L. Nielsen
Original Paper


Identifying the origin of a biological invasion has important applications to the effective control of the invaders. This is more critical for invasive agricultural pests that cause severe economic losses. The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, originally from East Asia, has become a principal agricultural pest in the US since its first detection in Pennsylvania in 1996. This species is responsible for crop failures on many mid-Atlantic farms and current control efforts rely on heavy insecticide applications because no other options are available. To examine the genetic diversity and identify the source region of the US introductions, we sequenced portions of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene, 12S ribosomal RNA gene and control region in populations from the US, China, South Korea and Japan. We detected high genetic divergence among native populations and traced the origin of US H. halys to the Beijing area in China. We observed much lower genetic diversity in exotic compared to native populations—two mitochondrial haplotypes in 55 US specimens versus 43 haplotypes in 77 native specimens. A single introduction of small propagule size matches the invasion history in the US. For the effective control of the US population, we suggest that surveys on egg parasitoids and insecticide resistance in natives should focus on the Beijing area in China.


East Asia Introduction history Invasive species Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeography Source population 



We are greatly appreciative of the assistance of A. Koppel, L. Zhang, M.-Z. Lin, F. Chen, S. H. Lee, H. J. Kim, S. H. Jung and M. Toyama in collecting specimens from the native range. We are indebted to all the homeowners who enthusiastically provided us with specimens and information. Citizen Science is an important resource in our fight against invasive species. This study was funded in part by NJAES Hatch projects 08191 and 0211785.

Supplementary material

10530_2013_510_MOESM1_ESM.docx (73 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 72 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiawu Xu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dina M. Fonseca
    • 1
    • 2
  • George C. Hamilton
    • 1
  • Kim A. Hoelmer
    • 3
  • Anne L. Nielsen
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA
  2. 2.Center for Vector BiologyRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA
  3. 3.USDA ARS Beneficial Insects Introduction Research UnitNewarkUSA
  4. 4.Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension CenterBridgetonUSA

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