Biological Invasions

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 671–685 | Cite as

Persistence and extirpation in invaded landscapes: patch characteristics and connectivity determine effects of non-native predatory fish on native salamanders

  • David S. Pilliod
  • Robert S. Arkle
  • Bryce A. Maxell
Original Paper

Abstract

Studies have demonstrated negative effects of non-native, predatory fishes on native amphibians, yet it is still unclear why some amphibian populations persist, while others are extirpated, following fish invasion. We examined this question by developing habitat-based occupancy models for the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and non-native fish using survey data from 1,749 water bodies across 470 catchments in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA. We first modeled the habitat associations of salamanders at 468 fishless water bodies in 154 catchments where non-native fish were historically, and are currently, absent from the entire catchment. We then applied this habitat model to the complete data set to predict the probability of salamander occupancy in each water body, removing any effect of fish presence. Finally, we compared field-observed occurrences of salamanders and fish to modeled probability of salamander occupancy. Suitability models indicated that fish and salamanders had similar habitat preferences, possibly resulting in extirpations of salamander populations from entire catchments where suitable habitats were limiting. Salamanders coexisted with non-native fish in some catchments by using marginal quality, isolated (no inlet or outlet) habitats that remained fishless. They rarely coexisted with fish within individual water bodies and only where habitat quality was highest. Connectivity of water bodies via streams resulted in increased probability of fish invasion and consequently reduced probability of salamander occupancy. These results could be used to identify and prioritize catchments and water bodies where control measures would be most effective at restoring amphibian populations. Our approach could be useful as a framework for improved investigations into questions of persistence and extirpation of native species when non-native species have already become established.

Keywords

Ambystoma macrodactylum Fish stocking Invasion Invasive species Long-toed salamander 

Supplementary material

10530_2012_317_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (496 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 495 kb)

References

  1. Adams SB, Frissell CA, Rieman BE (2001) Geography of invasion in mountain streams: consequences of headwater lake fish introductions. Ecosystems 4:296–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson JD (1967) A comparison of the life histories of coastal and montane populations of Ambystoma macrodactylum in California. Am Midl Nat 77:323–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bahls P (1992) The status of fish populations and management of high mountain lakes in the western United States. Northwest Sci 66:183–193Google Scholar
  4. Bobeldyk AM, Bossenbroek JM, Evans-White MA, Lodge DM, Lamberti GA (2005) Secondary spread of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in coupled lake-stream systems. Ecoscience 12:339–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bosch J, Rincon PA, Boyero L, Martínez–Solano I (2006) Effects of introduced salmonids on a montane population of Iberian frogs. Conserv Biol 20:180–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Braña F, Frechilla L, Orizoala G (1996) Effect of introduced fish on amphibian assemblages in mountain lakes of northern Spain. Herpetol J 6:145–148Google Scholar
  7. Bull EL, Marx DB (2002) Influence of fish and habitat on amphibian communities in high elevation lakes in northeastern Oregon. Northwest Sci 76:240–248Google Scholar
  8. Courtenay WR, Stauffer JR (1984) Distribution, biology, and management of exotic fishes. The John Hopkins University Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  9. Crowder LB, Cooper WE (1982) Habitat structural complexity and the interaction between bluegills and their prey. Ecology 63:1802–1813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Denoel M, Dzukic G, Kalezic ML (2005) Effects of widespread fish introductions on paedomorphic newts in Europe. Conserv Biol 19:162–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Diehl S (1992) Fish predation and benthic community structure: the role of omnivory and habitat complexity. Ecology 73:1646–1661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Donald DB (1987) Assessment of the outcome of eight decades of trout stocking in the mountain national parks, Canada. North Am J Fish Manag 7:545–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Drake DC, Naiman RJ (2000) An evaluation of restoration efforts in fishless lakes stocked with exotic trout. Conserv Biol 14:1807–1820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dunham JB, Pilliod DS, Young MK (2004) Assessing the consequences of nonnative trout in headwater ecosystems in western North America. Fisheries 29:18–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ellis BK, Stanford JA, Goodman D, Stafford CP, Gustafson DL, Beauchamp DA, Chess DW, Craft JA, Deleray MA, Hansen BS (2011) Long-term effects of a trophic cascade in a large lake ecosystem. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:1070–1075PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Funk WC, Dunlap WW (1999) Colonization of high-elevation lakes by long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum). Can J Zool 77:1759–1767Google Scholar
  17. Gause GF (1934) The struggle for existence. Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gotceitas V (1990) Variation in plant stem density and its effects on foraging success of juvenile bluegill sunfish. Environ Biol Fish 27:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hardin G (1960) The competitive exclusion principle. Science 131:1292–1297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hartel T, Nemes S, Cogălniceanu D, Öllerer K, Schweiger O, Moga CI, Demeter L (2007) The effect of fish and aquatic habitat complexity on amphibians. Hydrobiol 583:173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hines, JE (2006) PRESENCE2—Software to estimate patch occupancy and related parameters. Accessed December 2011. http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/software/presence.html
  22. Hoffman RL, Larson GL, Samora B (2004) Responses of Ambystoma gracile to the removal of introduced non-native fish from a mountain lake. J Herpetol 38:578–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Howard JH, Wallace RL (1985) Life history characteristics of populations of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) from different altitudes. Am Midl Nat 113:361–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kats LB, Ferrer RP (2003) Alien predators and amphibian declines: review of two decades of science and the transition to conservation. Divers Distrib 9:99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kaufman L (1992) Catastrophic changes in species-rich freshwater ecosystems—the lessons of Lake Victoria. Bioscience 42:846–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Knapp RA, Matthews KR, Sarnelle O (2001) Resistance and resilience of alpine lake fauna to fish introductions. Ecol Monogr 71:401–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lodge DM, Stein RA, Brown KM, Covich AP, Bronmark C, Garvey JE, Klosiewski SP (1998) Predicting impact of freshwater exotic species on native biodiversity: challenges in spatial scaling. Aus J Ecol 23:53–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. MacKenzie DI, Nichols JD, Royle JA, Pollock KH, Bailey LL, Hines JE (2006) Occupancy estimation and modeling. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  29. Maxell BA (2009) State-wide assessment of status, predicted distribution, and landscape-level habitat suitability of amphibians and reptiles in Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Montana, Missoula, MontanaGoogle Scholar
  30. McCune B (2006) Nonparametric habitat models with automatic interactions. J Veg Sci 17:819–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McCune B (2009) Nonparametric multiplicative regression for habitat modeling. http://www.pcord.com/NPMRintro.pdf. Accessed 20 December 2011
  32. McCune B, Mefford MJ (2009) HyperNiche. Multiplicative habitat modeling. Version 2.06. MjM Software, Gleneden BeachGoogle Scholar
  33. Pearson KJ, Goater CP (2008) Distribution of long-toed salamanders and introduced trout in high- and low-elevation wetlands in southwestern Alberta, Canada. Ecoscience 15:453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pearson KJ, Goater CP (2009) Effects of predaceous and nonpredaceous introduced fish on the survival, growth, and antipredation behaviours of long-toed salamanders. Can J Zool 87:948–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pilliod DS, Fronzuto JA (2005) Ambystoma macrodactylum, Long-toed Salamander. In: Lannoo M (ed) Amphibian declines: the conservation status of United States species. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 617–621Google Scholar
  36. Pilliod DS, Peterson CR (2001) Local and landscape effects of introduced trout on amphibians in historically fishless watersheds. Ecosystems 4:322–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pilliod DS, Hossack BR, Bahls PF, Bull EL, Corn PS, Hokit G, Maxell BA, Munger JC, Wyrick A (2010) Non-native salmonids affect amphibian occupancy at multiple spatial scales. Divers Distrib 16:959–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Savidge JA (1987) Extinction of an island forest avifauna by an introduced snake. Ecology 68:660–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Spencer CN, McClelland BR, Stanford JA (1991) Shrimp stocking, salmon collapse, and eagle displacement. Bioscience 41:14–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tyler TJ, Liss WJ, Hoffman RL, Ganio LM (1998a) Experimental analysis of trout effects on survival, growth, and habitat use of two species of Ambystomatid salamanders. J Herpetol 32:345–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tyler TJ, Liss WJ, Ganio LM, Larson GL, Hoffman RL, Deimling E, Lomnicky G (1998b) Interaction between introduced trout and larval salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in high-elevation lakes. Conserv Biol 12:94–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Verdin KL, Verdin JP (1999) A topological system for delineation and codification of the Earth’s river basins. J Hydrol 218:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Welsh HH, Pope KL, Boiano D (2006) Sub-alpine amphibian distributions related to species palatability to nonnative salmonids in the Klamath Mountains of northern California. Divers Distrib 12:298–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • David S. Pilliod
    • 1
  • Robert S. Arkle
    • 1
  • Bryce A. Maxell
    • 2
  1. 1.U.S. Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science CenterSnake River Field StationBoiseUSA
  2. 2.Montana Natural Heritage ProgramHelenaUSA

Personalised recommendations