Biological Invasions

, Volume 14, Issue 12, pp 2573–2586

Patterns and consequences of re-invasion into a Hawaiian dry forest restoration

  • Erin J. Questad
  • Jarrod M. Thaxton
  • Susan Cordell
Original Paper

Abstract

The restoration of native plant diversity may be an effective tool for weed control, but its use has not been tested in the heavily invaded Hawaiian dry forest ecosystem. In addition, the ecological mechanisms by which invasive plants may cause declines in native plant diversity are generally not well understood. We examined invasion resistance and the relationships between invasion and declines in native plant diversity at local scales in a Hawaiian dry forest restoration by experimentally removing non-native species, planting native species, manipulating resources and environmental conditions, and allowing non-native species to re-invade. We found higher invasion rates in habitats that supported the most native species, suggesting that similar mechanisms may regulate the distribution of both native and invasive species. Pennisetum setaceum, a dominant invasive perennial grass, was associated with native plant mortality and declines in native diversity. Although invasion rates were greatest in more favorable habitats, the association of invasion with native species loss was significant only in lower quality habitats, suggesting that environmental conditions may regulate competitive interactions between native and invasive species. We found that native woody plant restoration is not an effective tool for weed control in this community, and that invasion may result in declines in native diversity. Our study provides a caveat to previous suggestions that invasion impacts on native diversity will be greatest in the most diverse plant communities. At local scales in some communities it may also be effective to control invasive species in sensitive areas with low resource availability instead of, or in addition to, areas with high biodiversity.

Keywords

Limiting similarity Plant diversity Local extinction Pennisetum setaceum Cenchrus setaceus 

References

  1. Abella SR, Craig DJ, Smith SD, Newton AC (2011) Identifying native vegetation for reducing exotic species during the restoration of desert ecosystems. Restor Ecol. doi:10.1111/j.1526-100X.2011.00848.x
  2. Abrams P (1983) The theory of limiting similarity. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 14:359–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen W (2000) Restoring Hawaii’s dry forests. Bioscience 50:1037–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakker JD, Wilson SD (2004) Using ecological restoration to constrain biological invasion. J Appl Ecol 41:1058–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blumenthal DM, Jordan NR, Svenson EL (2003) Weed control as a rationale for restoration: the example of tallgrass prairie. Conserv Ecol 7(1), article 6. http://www.consecol.org/vol7/iss1/art6
  6. Blumenthal DM, Jordan NR, Svenson EL (2005) Effects of prairie restoration on weed invasions. Agric Ecosyst Environ 107:221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown RL, Peet RK (2003) Diversity and invasibility of southern Appalachian plant communities. Ecology 84:32–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bruegmann MM (1996) Hawaii’s dry forests. Endanger Species Bull 11:26–27Google Scholar
  9. Cabin RJ, Weller SG, Lorence DH et al (2000) Effects of long-term ungulate exclusion and recent alien species control on the preservation and restoration of a Hawaiian tropical dry forest. Conserv Biol 14:439–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caujape-Castells J, Tye A, Crawford DJ et al (2010) Conservation of oceanic island floras: present and future global challenges. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 12:107–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cordell S, Sandquist DR (2008) The impact of an invasive African bunchgrass (Pennisetum setaceum) on water availability and productivity of canopy trees within a tropical dry forest in Hawaii. Funct Ecol 22:1008–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cordell S, Cabin RJ, Hadway LJ (2002) Physiological ecology of native and alien dry forest shrubs in Hawaii. Biol Invasions 4:387–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Daehler CC (2003) Performance comparisons of co-occurring native and alien invasive plants: implications for conservation and restoration. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 34:183–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. D’Antonio CM, Mahall BE (1991) Root profiles and competition between the invasive, exotic perennial, Carpobrotus-Edulis, and 2 native shrub species in California Coastal Scrub. Am J Bot 78:885–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. D’Antonio C, Meyerson LA (2002) Exotic plant species as problems and solutions in ecological restoration: a synthesis. Restor Ecol 10:703–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. D’Antonio CM, Vitousek PM (1992) Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass fire cycle, and global change. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 23:63–87Google Scholar
  17. D’Antonio CM, Hughes RF, Mack M et al (1998) The response of native species to removal of invasive exotic grasses in a seasonally dry Hawaiian woodland. J Veg Sci 9:699–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davies KF, Chession P, Harrison S et al (2005) Spatial heterogeneity explains the scale dependence of the native–exotic diversity relationship. Ecology 86:1602–1610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis M, Chew MK, Hobbs RJ et al (2011) Don’t judge species on their origins. Nature 474:153–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DeMeester JE, Richter DD (2010) Restoring restoration: removal of the invasive plant Microstegium vimineum from a North Carolina wetland. Biol Invasions 12:781–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Denslow JS (2003) Weeds in paradise: thoughts on the invasibility of tropical islands. Ann Mo Bot Gard 90:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dillemuth FP, Rietschier EA, Cronin JT (2009) Patch dynamics of a native grass in relation to the spread of invasive smooth brome (Bromus inermis). Biol Invasions 11:1381–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dukes JS (2001) Biodiversity and invasibility in grassland microcosms. Oecologia 126:563–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Emer C, Fonseca CR (2011) Araucaria Forest conservation: mechanisms providing resistance to invasion by exotic timber trees. Biol Invasions 13:189–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Emery SM (2007) Limiting similarity between invaders and dominant species in herbaceous plant communities? J Ecol 95:1027–1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fargione J, Brown CS, Tilman D (2003) Community assembly and invasion: an experimental test of neutral versus niches processes. PNAS 100:8916–8920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Fridley JD, Stachowicz JJ, Naeem S et al (2007) The invasion paradox: reconciling pattern and process in species invasions. Ecology 88:3–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Funk JL, Vitousek PM (2007) Resource-use efficiency and plant invasion in low-resource systems. Nature 446:1079–1081PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Funk JL, Cleland EE, Suding KN et al (2008) Restoration through reassembly: plant traits and invasion resistance. Trends Ecol Evol 23:695–703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gaertner M, Den Breeyen A, Hui C et al (2009) Impacts of alien plant invasions on species richness in Mediterranean-type ecosystems: a meta-analysis. Prog Phys Geogr 33:319–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Garcia-Serrano H, Sans FX, Escarre J (2007) Interspecific competition between alien and native congeneric species. Acta Oecologica-Int J Ecol 31:69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Giambelluca TW, Nullet MA, Schroeder TA (1986) Rainfall atlas of Hawaii. State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Water and Land Development, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  33. Gillespie TW, Keppel G, Pau S et al (2011) Floristic composition and natural history characteristics of dry forests in the Pacific. Pac Sci 65:127–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Goergen E, Daehler CC (2001) Reproductive ecology of a native Hawaiian grass (Heteropogon contortus; poaceae) versus its invasive alien competitor (Pennisetum setaceum; poaceae). Int J Plant Sci 162:317–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goergen E, Daehler CC (2002) Factors affecting seedling recruitment in an invasive grass (Pennisetum setaceum) and a nativegrass (Heteropogon contortus) in the Hawaiian Islands. Plant Ecol 161:147–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gooden B, French K, Turner PJ (2009) Invasion and management of a woody plant, Lantana camara L., alters vegetation diversity within wet sclerophyll forest in southeastern Australia. For Ecol Manag 257:960–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gurevitch J, Padilla DK (2004) Are invasive species a major cause of extinctions? Trends Ecol Evol 19:470–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hejda M, Pysek P, Jarosik V (2009) Impact of invasive plants on the species richness, diversity and composition of invaded communities. J Ecol 97:393–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Higgins SI, Richardson DM, Cowling RM et al (1999) Predicting the landscape-scale distribution of alien plants and their threat to plant diversity. Conserv Biol 13:303–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. HilleRisLambers J, Yelenik SG, Colman BP et al (2010) California annual grass invaders: the drivers or passengers of change? J Ecol 98:1147–1156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hooper DU, Dukes JS (2010) Functional composition controls invasion success in a California serpentine grassland. J Ecol 98:764–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kellner JR, Asner GP, Kinney KM et al (2011) Remote analysis of biological invasion and the impact of enemy release. Ecol Appl 21:2094–2104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Levine JM (2000) Species diversity and biological invasions: relating local process to community pattern. Science 288:852–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Levine JM, D’Antonio CM (1999) Elton revisited: a review of evidence linking diversity and invasibility. Oikos 87:15–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Levine JM, Vila M, D’Antonio CM et al (2003) Mechanisms underlying the impacts of exotic plant invasions. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 270:775–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. MacDougall AS, Turkington R (2005) Are invasive species the drivers or passengers of change in degraded ecosystems? Ecology 86:42–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mack MC, D’Antonio CM, Ley RE (2001) Alteration of ecosystem nitrogen dynamics by exotic plants: a case study of C-4 grasses in Hawaii. Ecol Appl 11:1323–1335Google Scholar
  48. Matesanz S, Eseudero A, Valladares F (2008) Additive effects of a potentially invasive grass and water stress on the performance of seedlings of gypsum specialists. Appl Veg Sci 11:287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Matthews JW, Spyreas G (2010) Convergence and divergence in plant community trajectories as a framework for monitoring wetland restoration progress. J Appl Ecol 47:1128–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mehrhoff L (1993) Rare plants in Hawaii: a status report. Plant Conserv 7:1–2Google Scholar
  51. Middleton EL, Bever JD, Schultz PA (2010) The effect of restoration methods on the quality of the restoration and resistance to invasion by exotics. Restor Ecol 18:181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Moser B, Fridley JD, Askew AP et al (2011) Simulated migration in a long-term climate change experiment: invasions impeded by dispersal limitation, not biotic resistance. J Ecol 99:1229–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ortega YK, Pearson DE (2005) Weak vs. strong invaders of natural plant communities: assessing invasibility and impact. Ecol Appl 15:651–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pysek P, Pysek A (1995) Invasion by Heracleum-Mantegazzianum in different habitats in the Czech-Republic. J Veg Sci 6:711–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Quinn LD, Holt JS (2009) Restoration for resistance to invasion by giant reed (Arundo donax). Invasive Plant Sci Manag 2:279–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rahlao SJ, Esler KJ, Milton SJ et al (2010) Nutrient addition and moisture promote the invasiveness of Crimson Fountaingrass (Pennisetum setaceum). Weed Sci 58:154–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sax DF, Gaines SD (2008) Species invasions and extinction: the future of native biodiversity on islands. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:11490–11497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Souza L, Bunn WA, Simberloff D et al (2011) Biotic and abiotic influences on native and exotic richness relationship across spatial scales: favourable environments for native species are highly invasible. Funct Ecol 25:1106–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Stohlgren TJ, Binkley D, Chong GW et al (1999) Exotic plant species invade hot spots of native plant diversity. Ecol Monogr 69:25–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Thaxton JM, Cole TC, Cordell S et al (2010) Native species regeneration following ungulate exclusion and nonnative grass removal in a remnant Hawaiian dry forest. Pac Sci 64:533–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Thaxton JM, Cordell S, Cabin RJ et al (2011) Non-native grass removal and shade increase soil moisture and seedling performance during Hawaiian dry forest restoration. Restor Ecol Online EarlyGoogle Scholar
  62. Tilman D, May RM, Lehman CL et al (1994) Habitat destruction and the extinction debt. Science 371:65–66Google Scholar
  63. Vitousek PM (1990) Biological invasions and ecosystem processes—towards an integration of population biology and ecosystem studies. Oikos 57:7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Williams JL, Crone EE (2006) The impact of invasive grasses on the population growth of Anemone patens, a long-lived native forb. Ecology 87:3200–3208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yurkonis KA, Meiners SJ (2004) Invasion impacts local species turnover in a successional system. Ecol Lett 7:764–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yurkonis KA, Meiners SJ, Wachholder BE (2005) Invasion impacts diversity through altered community dynamics. J Ecol 93:1053–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erin J. Questad
    • 1
  • Jarrod M. Thaxton
    • 2
  • Susan Cordell
    • 3
  1. 1.Biological Sciences DepartmentCalifornia State Polytechnic University, PomonaPomonaUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of Puerto RicoMayagüezUSA
  3. 3.USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research StationInstitute of Pacific Islands ForestryHiloUSA

Personalised recommendations