Biological Invasions

, Volume 13, Issue 9, pp 1969–1989

Tree invasions: a comparative test of the dominant hypotheses and functional traits

  • Laurent Jean Lamarque
  • Sylvain Delzon
  • Christopher James Lortie
Original Paper

Abstract

Trees act as ecosystem engineers and invasions by exotic tree species profoundly impact recipient communities. Recently, research on invasive trees has dramatically increased, enabling the assessment of general trends in tree invasion. Analysing 90 studies dealing with 45 invasive tree species, we conducted a quantitative review and a meta-analysis to estimate the relevance of eight leading hypotheses for explaining tree invasions. We also tested whether species functional traits (growth rate, density/cover, germination, biomass and survival) equally promote tree invasiveness. Overall, our results suggest that several hypotheses, linked to invasibility or invasiveness, are pertinent to explain tree invasions. Furthermore, more than one hypothesis has been supported for a given species, which indicates that multiple factors lead to the success of invasive tree species. In addition, growth rate appears to be the most efficient predictor of invasiveness for invasive trees and could thus be used as a means to identify potential alien tree invasions. We conclude that further investigations are needed to test the consistency of some hypotheses across a broader pool of invasive tree species, whilst experimental studies with the same tree species across a larger range of sites would help to reveal the full suite of factors that affect tree invasions.

Keywords

Tree invasion Systematic review Meta-analysis Invasiveness Invasibility Functional traits 

References

  1. Adams DC, Gurevitch J, Rosenberg MS (1997) Resampling tests for meta-analysis of ecological data. Ecology 78:1277–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams JM, Fang W, Callaway RM, Cipollini D, Newell E (2009) A cross-continental test of the enemy release hypothesis: leaf herbivory on Acer platanoides (L.) is three times lower in North America than in its native Europe. Biol Invasions 11:1005–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguilar R, Ashworth L, Galetto L, Aizen MA (2006) Plant reproductive susceptibility to habitat fragmentation: review and synthesis through a meta-analysis. Ecol Lett 9:968–980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alston KP, Richardson DM (2006) The roles of habitat features, disturbance, and distance from putative source populations in structuring alien plant invasions at the urban/wildland interface on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. Biol Conserv 132:183–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barton AM, Brewster LB, Cox AN, Prentiss NK (2004) Non-indigenous woody invasive plants in a rural New England town. Biol Invasions 6:205–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baruch Z, Goldstein G (1999) Leaf construction cost, nutrient concentration, and net CO2 assimilation of native and invasive species in Hawaii. Oecologia 121:183–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baruch Z, Pattison RR, Goldstein G (2000) Responses to light and water availability of four invasive Melastomataceae in the Hawaiian islands. Int J Plant Sci 161:107–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Battaglia LL, Denslow JS, Inczauskis JR, Baer SG (2009) Effects of native vegetation on invasion success of Chinese tallow in a floating marsh ecosystem. J Ecol 97:239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bellingham PJ, Tanner EVJ, Healey JR (2005) Hurricane disturbance accelerates invasion by the alien tree Pittosporum undulatum in Jamaican montane rain forests. J Veg Sci 16:675–684Google Scholar
  10. Belote RT, Jones RH (2009) Tree leaf litter composition and nonnative earthworms influence plant invasion in experimental forest floor mesocosms. Biol Invasions 11:1045–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Belote RT, Jones RH, Hood SM, Wender BW (2008) Diversity-invasibility across an experimental disturbance gradient in Appalachian forests. Ecology 89:183–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blackburn TM, Jeschke JM (2009) Invasion success and threat status: two sides of a different coin? Ecography 32:83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blossey B, Notzold R (1995) Evolution of increased competitive ability in invasive nonindigenous plants—a hypothesis. J Ecol 83:887–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blumenthal D (2005) Ecology—interrelated causes of plant invasion. Science 310:243–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blumenthal DM (2006) Interactions between resource availability and enemy release in plant invasion. Ecol Lett 9:887–895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blumenthal D, Mitchell CE, Pysek P, Jarosik V (2009) Synergy between pathogen release and resource availability in plant invasion. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106:7899–7904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bruno JF, Stachowicz JJ, Bertness MD (2003) Inclusion of facilitation into ecological theory. Trends Ecol Evol 18:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Callaway RM, Aschehoug ET (2000) Invasive plants versus their new and old neighbors: a mechanism for exotic invasion. Science 290:521–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Callaway RM, Maron JL (2006) What have exotic plant invasions taught us over the past 20 years? Trends Ecol Evol 21:369–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carvalho LM, Antunes PM, Martins-Loucao MA, Klironomos JN (2010) Disturbance influences the outcome of plant-soil biota interactions in the invasive Acacia longifolia and in native species. Oikos 119:1172–1180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chabrerie O, Verheyen K, Saguez R, Decocq G (2008) Disentangling relationships between habitat conditions, disturbance history, plant diversity and American black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) invasion in a European temperate forest. Divers Distrib 14:204–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chaneton EJ, Mazia CN, Machera M, Uchitel A, Ghersa CM (2004) Establishment of honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) in burned Pampean grasslands. Weed Technol 18:1325–1329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cincotta CL, Adams JM, Holzapfel C (2009) Testing the enemy release hypothesis: a comparison of foliar insect herbivory of the exotic Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) and the native sugar maple (A. saccharum L.). Biol Invasions 11:379–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Closset-Kopp D, Saguez R, Decocq G (2010) Differential growth patterns and fitness may explain contrasted performances of the invasive Prunus serotina in its exotic range. Biol Invasions. doi:10.1007/s10530-010-9893-6
  25. Colautti RI, Grigorovich IA, MacIsaac HJ (2006) Propagule pressure: a null model for biological invasions. Biol Invasions 8:1023–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Conway WC, Smith LM, Bergan JF (2002) Potential allelopathic interference by the exotic Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum). Am Midl Nat 148:43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crooks JA (2002) Characterizing ecosystem-level consequences of biological invasions: the role of ecosystem engineers. Oikos 97:153–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Davis MA, Grime JP, Thompson K (2000) Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. J Ecol 88:528–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dezzotti A, Sbrancia R, Mortoro A, Monte C (2009) Biological invasion of Pinus ponderosa and Pinus contorta: case study of a forest plantation in Northwestern Patagonia. Invest Agrar-Sist Rec F 18:181–191Google Scholar
  30. Donnelly MJ, Walters LJ (2008) Water and boating activity as dispersal vectors for Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper) seeds in freshwater and estuarine habitats. Estuar Coast 31:960–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Donnelly MJ, Green DM, Walters LJ (2008) Allelopathic effects of fruits of the Brazilian pepper Schinus terebinthifolius on growth, leaf production and biomass of seedlings of the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle and the black mangrove Avicennia germinans. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 357:149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Erfmeier A, Bruelheide H (2010) Invasibility or invasiveness? Effects of habitat, genotype, and their interaction on invasive Rhododendron ponticum populations. Biol Invasions 12:657–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Feng Y, Wang J, Sang W (2007) Biomass allocation, morphology and photosynthesis of invasive and non-invasive exotic species grown at four irradiance levels. Acta Oecol 31:40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Franks SJ, Pratt PD, Dray FA, Simms EL (2008a) No evolution of increased competitive ability or decreased allocation to defense in Melaleuca quinquenervia since release from natural enemies. Biol Invasions 10:455–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Franks SJ, Pratt PD, Dray FA, Simms EL (2008b) Selection on herbivory resistance and growth rate in an invasive plant. Am Nat 171:678–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gaertner M, Den Breeyen A, Hui C, Richardson DM (2009) Impacts of alien plant invasions on species richness in Mediterranean-type ecosystems: a meta-analysis. Prog Phys Geogr 33:319–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gates S (2002) Review of methodology of quantitative reviews using meta-analysis in ecology. J Anim Ecol 71:547–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Green PT, Lake PS, O’Dowd DJ (2004) Resistance of island rainforest to invasion by alien plants: influence of microhabitat and herbivory on seedling performance. Biol Invasions 6:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Grotkopp E, Rejmánek M, Rost TL (2002) Toward a causal explanation of plant invasiveness: seedling growth and life-history strategies of 29 pine (Pinus) species. Am Nat 159:396–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gurevitch J, Curtis PS, Jones MH (2001) Meta-analysis in ecology. Adv Ecol Res 32:199–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gurevitch J, Howard TG, Ashton IW, Leger EA, Howe KM, Woo E, Lerdau M (2008) Effects of experimental manipulation of light and nutrients on establishment of seedlings of native and invasive woody species in Long Island, NY forests. Biol Invasions 10:821–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hedges LV, Olkin I (1985) Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Academic Press, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  43. Heimpel GE, Frelich LE, Landis DA, Hopper KR, Hoelmer KA, Sezen Z, Asplen MK, Wu KM (2010) European buckthorn and Asian soybean aphid as components of an extensive invasional meltdown in North America. Biol Invasions 12:2913–2931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hierro JL, Maron JL, Callaway RM (2005) A biogeographical approach to plant invasions: the importance of studying exotics in their introduced and native range. J Ecol 93:5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Higgins SI, Richardson DM (1998) Pine invasions in the southern hemisphere: modelling interactions between organism, environment and disturbance. Plant Ecol 135:79–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Higgins SI, Richardson DM, Cowling RM (1996) Modeling invasive plant spread: the role of plant-environment interactions and model structure. Ecology 77:2043–2054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hoffmann WA, Poorter H (2002) Avoiding bias in calculations of relative growth rate. Ann Bot-Lond 90:37–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Howard TG, Gurevitch J, Hyatt L, Carreiro M, Lerdau M (2004) Forest invasibility in communities in southeastern New York. Biol Invasions 6:393–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huang W, Siemann E, Wheeler GS, Zou JW, Carrillo J, Ding JQ (2010) Resource allocation to defence and growth are driven by different responses to generalist and specialist herbivory in an invasive plant. J Ecol 98:1157–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Inderjit (2005) Plant invasions: habitat invasibility and dominance of invasive plant species. Plant Soil 277:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Iponga DM, Milton SJ, Richardson DM (2009a) Reproductive potential and seedling establishment of the invasive alien tree Schinus molle (Anacardiaceae) in South Africa. Austral Ecol 34:678–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Iponga DM, Milton SJ, Richardson DM (2009b) Soil type, microsite, and herbivory influence growth and survival of Schinus molle (Peruvian pepper tree) invading semi-arid African savanna. Biol Invasions 11:159–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Iponga DM, Milton SJ, Richardson DM (2010) Performance of seedlings of the invasive alien tree Schinus molle L. under indigenous and alien host trees in semi-arid savanna. Afr J Ecol 48:155–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jackson RB, Banner JL, Jobbagy EG, Pockman WT, Wall DH (2002) Ecosystem carbon loss with woody plant invasion of grasslands. Nature 418:623–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jones RB (1998) TechDig. Version 2.0d. Mundelein, ILGoogle Scholar
  56. Kaproth MA, McGraw JB (2008) Seed viability and dispersal of the wind-dispersed invasive Ailanthus altissima in aqueous environments. Forest Sci 54:490–496Google Scholar
  57. Keane RM, Crawley MJ (2002) Exotic plant invasions and the enemy release hypothesis. Trends Ecol Evol 17:164–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Keay J, Rogers WE, Lankau R, Siemann E (2000) The role of allelopathy in the invasion of the Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum). Tex J Sci 52:57–64Google Scholar
  59. Knapp LB, Fownes JH, Harrington RA (2008) Variable effects of large mammal herbivory on three non-native versus three native woody plants. Forest Ecol Manag 255:92–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Knight KS, Reich PB (2005) Opposite relationships between invasibility and native species richness at patch versus landscape scales. Oikos 109:81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Knight KS, Oleksyn J, Jagodzinski AM, Reich PB, Kasprowicz M (2008) Overstorey tree species regulate colonization by native and exotic plants: a source of positive relationships between understorey diversity and invasibility. Divers Distrib 14:666–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Krivanek M, Pysek P (2006) Predicting invasions by woody species in a temperate zone: a test of three risk assessment schemes in the Czech Republic (Central Europe). Divers Distrib 12:319–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Krivanek M, Pysek P, Jarosik V (2006) Planting history and propagule pressure as predictors of invasion by woody species in a temperate region. Conserv Biol 20:1487–1498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kuppinger DM, Jenkins MA, White PS (2010) Predicting the post-fire establishment and persistence of an invasive tree species across a complex landscape. Biol Invasions 12:3473–3484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lankau RA, Rogers WE, Siemann E (2004) Constraints on the utilisation of the invasive Chinese tallow tree Sapium sebiferum by generalist native herbivores in coastal prairies. Ecol Entomol 29:66–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Leger EA, Howe KM, Gurevitch J, Woo E, Hickman J, Ashton IW, Lerdau M (2007) The interaction between soil nutrients and leaf loss during early 14 establishment in plant invasion. Forest Sci 53:701–709Google Scholar
  67. Leimu R, Mutikainen P, Koricheva J, Fisher M (2006) How general are positive relationships between plant population size, fitness and genetic variation? J Ecol 94:942–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lesica P, DeLuca TH (2004) Is tamarisk allelopathic? Plant Soil 267:357–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Levine JM, D’Antonio CM (1999) Elton revisited: a review of evidence linking diversity and invasibility. Oikos 87:15–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Liu H, Stiling P (2006) Testing the enemy release hypothesis: a review and meta-analysis. Biol Invasions 8:1535–1545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Liu H, Stiling P, Pemberton RW (2007) Does enemy release matter for invasive plants? Evidence from a comparison of insect herbivore damage among invasive, non-invasive and native congeners. Biol Invasions 9:773–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lockhart C, Austin DF, Aumen NG (1999) Water level effects on growth of Melaleuca seedlings from Lake Okeechobee (Florida, USA) littoral zone. Environ Manag 23:507–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lockwood JL, Cassey P, Blackburn TM (2009) The more you introduce the more you get: the role of colonization pressure and propagule pressure in invasion ecology. Divers Distrib 15:904–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lonsdale WM (1999) Global patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invasibility. Ecology 80:1522–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lorenzo P, Pazos-Malvido E, Gonzalez L, Reigosa MJ (2008) Allelopathic interference of invasive Acacia dealbata: physiological effects. Allelopath J 22:453–462Google Scholar
  76. Lorenzo P, Pazos-Malvido E, Reigosa MJ, Gonzalez L (2010a) Differential responses to allelopathic compounds released by the invasive Acacia dealbata link (Mimosaceae) indicate stimulation of its own seed. Aust J Bot 58:546–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lorenzo P, Rodriguez-Echeverria S, Gonzalez L, Freitas H (2010b) Effect of invasive Acacia dealbata link on soil microorganisms as determined by PCR-DGGE. Appl Soil Ecol 44:245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mack RN (1996) Predicting the identity and fate of plant invaders: emergent and emerging approaches. Biol Conserv 78:107–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mack RN, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM, Evans H, Clout M, Bazzaz FA (2000) Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol Appl 10:689–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Maron JL, Vila M (2001) When do herbivores affect plant invasion? Evidence for the natural enemies and biotic resistance hypotheses. Oikos 95:361–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Martin PH, Canham CD (2010) Dispersal and recruitment limitation in native versus exotic tree species: life-history strategies and Janzen-Connell effects. Oikos 119:807–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Martin PH, Marks PL (2006) Intact forests provide only weak resistance to a shade-tolerant invasive Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.). J Ecol 94:1070–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mazia CN, Chaneton EJ, Ghersa CM, Leon RJC (2001) Limits to tree species invasion in pampean grassland and forest plant communities. Oecologia 128:594–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mazia C, Chaneton EJ, Machera M, Uchitel A, Feler MV, Ghersa CM (2010) Antagonistic effects of large- and small-scale disturbances on exotic tree invasion in a native tussock grassland relict. Biol Invasions 12:3109–3122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. McCay TS, McCay DH (2009) Processes regulating the invasion of European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) in three habitats of the northeastern United States. Biol Invasions 11:1835–1844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Milbau A, Nijs I, Van Peer L, Reheul D, De Cauwer B (2003) Disentangling invasiveness and invasibility during invasion in synthesized grassland communities. New Phytol 159:657–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Milton SJ, Wilson JRU, Richardson DM, Seymour CL, Dean WRJ, Iponga DM, Proches S (2007) Invasive alien plants infiltrate bird-mediated shrub nucleation processes in arid savanna. J Ecol 95:648–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Morgan EC, Overholt WA (2005) Potential allelopathic effects of Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae) aqueous extract on germination and growth of selected Florida native plants. J Torrey Bot Soc 132:11–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Morrison JA, Mauck K (2007) Experimental field comparison of native and non-native maple seedlings: natural enemies, ecophysiology, growth and survival. J Ecol 95:1036–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Nasir H, Iqbal Z, Hiradate S, Fujii Y (2005) Allelopathic potential of Robinia pseudo-acacia L. J Chem Ecol 31:2179–2192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nijjer S, Rogers WE, Siemann E (2007) Negative plant-soil feedbacks may limit persistence of an invasive tree due to rapid accumulation of soil pathogens. Proc R Soc B-Biol Sci 274:2621–2627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nunez MA, Relva MA, Simberloff D (2008) Enemy release or invasional meltdown? Deer preference for exotic and native trees on Isla Victoria, Argentina. Austral Ecol 33:317–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ohlemüller R, Walker S, Wilson JB (2006) Local vs regional factors as determinants of the invasibility of indigenous forest fragments by alien plant species. Oikos 112:493–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Peperkorn R, Werner C, Beyschlag W (2005) Phenotypic plasticity of an invasive acacia versus two native Mediterranean species. Funct Plant Biol 32:933–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pysek P, Richardson DM (2007) Traits associated with invasiveness in alien plants: where do we stand? In: Nentwig W (ed) Biological invasions. Springer, Berlin, pp 97–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pysek P, Richardson DM, Rejmanek M, Webster GL, Williamson M, Kirschner J (2004) Alien plants in checklists and floras: towards better communication between taxonomists and ecologists. Taxon 53:131–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pysek P, Richardson DM, Pergl J, Jarosik V, Sixtova Z, Weber E (2008) Geographical and taxonomic biases in invasion ecology. Trends Ecol Evol 23:237–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pysek P, Krivanek M, Jarosik V (2009) Planting intensity, residence time, and species traits determine invasion success of alien woody species. Ecology 90:2734–2744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Randall JM (1993) Exotic weeds in North American and Hawaiian natural areas: the nature conservancy’s plan of attack. In: McKnight B (ed) Biological pollution: the control and impact of invasive exotic species. Indiana Academy of Sciences, Indianapolis, pp. 159–172Google Scholar
  100. Randall JM (1996) Weed control for the preservation of biological diversity. Weed Technol 10:370–383Google Scholar
  101. Reich PB, Peterson DW, Wedin DA, Wrage K (2001) Fire and vegetation effects on productivity and nitrogen cycling across a forest-grassland continuum. Ecology 82:1703–1719Google Scholar
  102. Reinhart KO, Callaway RM (2004) Soil biota facilitate exotic Acer invasions in Europe and North America. Ecol Appl 14:1737–1745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Reinhart KO, Packer A, Van der Putten WH, Clay K (2003) Plant-soil biota interactions and spatial distribution of black cherry in its native and invasive ranges. Ecol Lett 6:1046–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Reinhart KO, Greene E, Callaway RM (2005) Effects of Acer platanoides invasion on understory plant communities and tree regeneration in the northern Rocky Mountains. Ecography 28:573–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Reinhart KO, Maestre FT, Callaway RM (2006) Facilitation and inhibition of seedlings of an invasive tree (Acer platanoides) by different tree species in a mountain ecosystem. Biol Invasions 8:231–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Reinhart KO, Tytgat T, Van der Putten WH, Clay K (2010) Virulence of soil-borne pathogens and invasion by Prunus serotina. New Phytol 186:484–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rejmánek M (1996) A theory of seed plant invasiveness: the first sketch. Biol Conserv 78:171–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rejmánek M, Richardson DM (1996) What attributes make some plant species more invasive? Ecology 77:1655–1661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rejmánek M, Richardson DM, Pysek P (2005) Plant invasions and invasibility of plant communities. In: van der Maarel E (ed) Vegetation ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 332–355Google Scholar
  110. Relva MA, Nunez MA, Simberloff D (2010) Introduced deer reduce native plant cover and facilitate invasion of non-native tree species: evidence for invasional meltdown. Biol Invasions 12:303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Reynolds LV, Cooper DJ (2010) Environmental tolerance of an invasive riparian tree and its potential for continued spread in the southwestern US. J Veg Sci 21:733–743Google Scholar
  112. Richardson DM (1998) Forestry trees as invasive aliens. Conserv Biol 12:18–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Richardson DM (2006) Pinus: a model group for unlocking the secrets of alien plant invasions? Preslia 78:375–388Google Scholar
  114. Richardson DM, Bond WJ (1991) Determinants of plant-distribution—evidence from pine invasions. Am Nat 137:639–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Richardson DM, Higgins SI (1998) Pines as invaders in the Southern Hemisphere. In: Richardson DM (ed) Ecology and biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 450–473Google Scholar
  116. Richardson DM, Pysek P (2006) Plant invasions: merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility. Prog Phys Geogr 30:409–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Richardson DM, van Wilgen BW (2004) Invasive alien plants in South Africa: how well do we understand the ecological impacts? S Afr J Sci 100:45–52Google Scholar
  118. Richardson DM, Williams PA, Hobbs RJ (1994) Pine invasions in the Southern-Hemisphere—determinants of spread and invasibility. J Biogeogr 21:511–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Richardson DM, Pysek P, Rejmanek M, Barbour MG, Panetta FD, West CJ (2000) Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Divers Distrib 6:93–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Richardson DM, Pysek P, Carlton JT (2011) A compendium of essential essential concepts and terminology in invasion ecology. In: Richardson DM (ed) Fifty years of invasion ecology. The legacy of Charles Elton. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 409–420Google Scholar
  121. Richardson DM, Rejmanek M. Trees and shrubs as invasive alien species—a global review. Divers Distrib (in press)Google Scholar
  122. Rogers WE, Siemann E (2002) Effects of simulated herbivory and resource availability on native and invasive exotic tree seedlings. Basic Appl Ecol 3:297–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rogers WE, Siemann E (2003) Effects of simulated herbivory and resources on Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum, Euphorbiaceae) invasion of native coastal prairie. Am J Bot 90:243–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rogers WE, Siemann E (2004) Invasive ecotypes tolerate herbivory more effectively than native ecotypes of the Chinese tallow tree Sapium sebiferum. J Appl Ecol 41:561–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rogers WE, Siemann E (2005) Herbivory tolerance and compensatory differences in native and invasive ecotypes of Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum). Plant Ecol 181:57–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Rosenberg MS (2005) The file-drawer problem revisited: a general weighted method for calculating fail-safe numbers in meta-analysis. Evolution 59:464–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Rosenberg MS, Adams DC, Gurevitch J (2000) MetaWin: statistical software for meta-analysis. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  128. Rouget M, Richardson DM (2003) Inferring process from pattern in plant invasions: a semimechanistic model incorporating propagule pressure and environmental factors. Am Nat 162:713–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Rouget M, Richardson DM, Milton SJ, Polakow D (2001) Predicting invasion dynamics of four alien Pinus species in a highly fragmented semi-arid shrubland in South Africa. Plant Ecol 152:79–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Saccone P, Pages JP, Girel J, Brun JJ, Michalet R (2010) Acer negundo invasion along a successional gradient: early direct facilitation by native pioneers and late indirect facilitation by conspecifics. New Phytol 187:831–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Sakai AK, Allendorf FW, Holt JS, Lodge DM, Molofsky J, With KA, Baughman S, Cabin RJ, Cohen JE, Ellstrand NC, McCauley DE, O’Neil P, Parker IM, Thompson JN, Weller SG (2001) The population biology of invasive species. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 32:305–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Schumacher E, Kueffer C, Tobler M, Gmur V, Edwards PJ, Dietz H (2008) Influence of drought and shade on seedling growth of native and invasive trees in the Seychelles. Biotropica 40:543–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Schumacher E, Kueffer C, Edwards PJ, Dietz H (2009) Influence of light and nutrient conditions on seedling growth of native and invasive trees in the Seychelles. Biol Invasions 11:1941–1954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Siemann E, Rogers WE (2001) Genetic differences in growth of an invasive tree species. Ecol Lett 4:514–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Siemann E, Rogers WE (2003a) Changes in light and nitrogen availability under pioneer trees may indirectly facilitate tree invasions of grasslands. J Ecol 91:923–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Siemann E, Rogers WE (2003b) Herbivory, disease, recruitment limitation, and success of alien and native tree species. Ecology 84:1489–1505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Siemann E, Rogers WE (2003c) Increased competitive ability of an invasive tree may be limited by an invasive beetle. Ecol Appl 13:1503–1507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Siemann E, Rogers WE (2003d) Reduced resistance of invasive varieties of the alien tree Sapium sebiferum to a generalist herbivore. Oecologia 135:451–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Siemann E, Rogers WE (2006) Recruitment limitation, seedling performance and persistence of exotic tree monocultures. Biol Invasions 8:979–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Siemann E, Rogers WE (2007) The role of soil resources in an exotic tree invasion in Texas coastal prairie. J Ecol 95:689–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Siemann E, Rogers WE, Dewalt SJ (2006) Rapid adaptation of insect herbivores to an invasive plant. Proc R Soc B-Biol Sci 273:2763–2769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Siemann E, Rogers WE, Grace JB (2007) Effects of nutrient loading and extreme rainfall events on coastal tallgrass prairies: invasion intensity, vegetation responses, and carbon and nitrogen distribution. Glob Change Biol 13:2184–2192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Simberloff D, Nunez MA, Ledgard NJ, Pauchard A, Richardson DM, Sarasola M, Van Wilgen BW, Zalba SM, Zenni RD, Bustamante R, Pena E, Ziller SR (2010) Spread and impact of introduced conifers in South America: lessons from other southern hemisphere regions. Austral Ecol 35:489–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Swanborough P, Westoby M (1996) Seedling relative growth rate and its components in relation to seed size: phylogenetically independent contrasts. Funct Ecol 10:176–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Tecco PA, Gurvich DE, Diaz S, Perez-Harguindeguy NP, Cabido M (2006) Positive interaction between invasive plants: the influence of Pyracantha angustifolia on the recruitment of native and exotic woody species. Austral Ecol 31:293–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Tecco PA, Diaz S, Gurvich DE, Perez-Harguindeguy N, Cabido M, Bertone GA (2007) Facilitation and interference underlying the association between the woody invaders Pyracantha angustifolia and Ligustrum lucidum. Appl Veg Sci 10:211–218Google Scholar
  147. van Kleunen M, Weber E, Fischer M (2010) A meta-analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive plant species. Ecol Lett 13:235–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Vanhellemont M, Verheyen K, De Keersmaeker L, Vandekerkhove K, Hermy M (2009) Does Prunus serotina act as an aggressive invader in areas with a low propagule pressure? Biol Invasions 11:1451–1462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wardle DA (2002) Communities and ecosystems: linking the aboveground and belowground components. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  150. Williams JL, Auge H, Maron JL (2008) Different gardens, different results: native and introduced populations exhibit contrasting phenotypes across common gardens. Oecologia 157:239–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Williamson M (1996) Biological invasions. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  152. Williamson M (2006) Explaining and predicting the success of invading species. Biol Invasions 8:1561–1568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Williamson M, Fitter A (1996) The varying success of invaders. Ecology 77:1661–1666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Yamashita N, Koike N, Ishida A (2002) Leaf ontogenetic dependence of light acclimation in invasive and native subtropical trees of different successional status. Plant Cell Environ 25:1341–1356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Yelenik SG, Stock WD, Richardson DM (2004) Ecosystem level impacts of invasive Acacia saligna in the South African fynbos. Restor Ecol 12:44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Zalba SM, Cuevas YA, Boo RM (2008) Invasion of Pinus halepensis Mill. following a wildfire in an Argentine grassland nature reserve. J Environ Manag 88:539–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Zou JW, Rogers WE, DeWalt SJ, Siemann E (2006) The effect of Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum) ecotype on soil-plant system carbon and nitrogen processes. Oecologia 150:272–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Zou JW, Rogers WE, Siemann E (2008a) Increased competitive ability and herbivory tolerance in the invasive plant Sapium sebiferum. Biol Invasions 10:291–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Zou JW, Siemann E, Rogers WE, DeWalt SJ (2008b) Decreased resistance and increased tolerance to native herbivores of the invasive plant Sapium sebiferum. Ecography 31:663–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Zou JW, Rogers WE, Siemann E (2009) Plasticity of Sapium sebiferum seedling growth to light and water resources: inter- and intraspecific comparisons. Basic Appl Ecol 10:79–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laurent Jean Lamarque
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sylvain Delzon
    • 2
  • Christopher James Lortie
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyYork UniversityTorontoCanada
  2. 2.UMR BIOGECOUniversity of Bordeaux, INRATalenceFrance

Personalised recommendations