Biological Invasions

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 581–603

The diet of feral cats on islands: a review and a call for more studies

  • E. Bonnaud
  • F. M. Medina
  • E. Vidal
  • M. Nogales
  • B. Tershy
  • E. Zavaleta
  • C. J. Donlan
  • B. Keitt
  • M. Le Corre
  • S. V. Horwath
Original Paper

Abstract

Cats are among the most successful and damaging invaders on islands and a significant driver of extinction and endangerment. Better understanding of their ecology can improve effective management actions such as eradication. We reviewed 72 studies of insular feral cat diet from 40 islands worldwide. Cats fed on a wide range of species from large birds and medium sized mammals to small insects with at least 248 species consumed (27 mammals, 113 birds, 34 reptiles, 3 amphibians, 2 fish and 69 invertebrates). Three mammals, 29 birds and 3 reptiles recorded in the diet of cats are listed as threatened by the IUCN. However, a few species of introduced mammals were the most frequent prey, and on almost all islands mammals and birds contributed most of the daily food intake. Latitude was positively correlated with the predation of rabbits and negatively with the predation of reptiles and invertebrates. Distance from landmass was positively correlated with predation on birds and negatively correlated with the predation of reptiles. The broad range of taxa consumed by feral cats on islands suggests that they have the potential to impact almost any native species, even the smallest ones under several grams, that lack behavioral, morphological or life history adaptations to mammalian predators. Insular feral cat’s reliance on introduced mammals, which evolved with cat predation, suggests that on many islands, populations of native species have already been reduced.

Keywords

Domestic cat Felis catus Feeding behaviour Food web Island ecosystem Conservation 

References

  1. Aguirre-Muñoz A, Croll DA, Donlan CJ et al (2008) High-Impact conservation action: a case study from the islands of western Mexico. Ambio 37:101–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alterio N (1996) Secondary poisoning of stoats (Mustela erminea), feral ferrets (Mustela furo), and feral house cats (Felis catus) by the anticoagulant poison, brodifacoum. N Z J Zool 23:331–338Google Scholar
  3. Alterio N, Moller H (1997) Diet of feral house cats Felis catus, ferrets Mustela furo and stoats M. erminea in grassland surrounding yellow-eyed penguin Megadyptes antipodes breeding areas, South Island, New Zealand. J Zool 243:869–877Google Scholar
  4. Apps PJ (1983) Aspects of the ecology of feral cats on Dassen Island, South Africa. S African J Zool 18:353–362Google Scholar
  5. Apps PJ (1986) A case study of an alien predator (Felis catus) introduced on Dassen Island: selective advantages. Suid-Afrik Antarkt Navors 16:118–122Google Scholar
  6. Arnaud G, Rodríguez A, Ortega-Rubio A et al (1993) Predation by cats on the unique endemic lizard of Socorro Island (Urosaurus auriculatus), Revillagigedo, Mexico. Ohio J Sci 93:101–104Google Scholar
  7. Artois M, Duchene M-J, Pericard J-M et al. (2002) Le chat domestique errant ou haret. Encyclopédie des carnivores de France, Société Française pour l’Étude et la Protection des Mammifères, BourgesGoogle Scholar
  8. Atkinson IAE (2001) Introduced mammals and models for restoration. Biol Conserv 99:81–96Google Scholar
  9. Balmford A (1996) Extinction filters and current resilience: the significance of past selection pressures for conservation biology. Tree 11:193–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Berruti A (1986) The predatory impact of feral cats Felis catus and their control on Dassen Island. S African J Antarc Res 16:123–127Google Scholar
  11. Blackburn TM, Cassey P, Duncan RP et al (2004) Avian extinction and mammalian introductions on oceanic islands. Science 305:1955–1957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bloomer JP, Bester MN (1990) Diet of a declining feral cat Felis catus population on Marion Island. S African J Wildl Res 20:1–4Google Scholar
  13. Bonnaud E, Bourgeois K, Vidal E et al (2007) Feeding ecology of a feral cat population on a small Mediterranean island. J Mammal 88:1074–1081Google Scholar
  14. Bradshaw JWS (1992) The behaviour of the domestic cat. CABI Publishing, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  15. Bramley GN (1996) A small predator removal experiment to protect North Island weka (Gallirallus australis greyi) and the case for single-subject approaches in determining agents of decline. N Z J Ecol 20:37–43Google Scholar
  16. Brooks T, Smith ML (2001) Caribbean Catastrophes. Science 294:1469–1471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Burbidge A, Morris K (2002) Introduced mammal eradications for nature conservation on Western Australian islands: a review. In: Veitch CR, Clout MN (eds) Turning the Tide: The Eradication of Invasive Species Proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Islands Invasives. IUCN Species Survival Commission, New Zealand, pp 64–70Google Scholar
  18. Casañas-Acosta N, Yebra-Mora L, Medina FM (1999) Distribución y variación temporal de la dieta del gato cimarrón (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) en Alegranza, islas Canarias (Mammalia, Carnivora). Vieraea 27:165–172Google Scholar
  19. Clevenger AP (1995) Seasonality and relationships of food resource use of Martes martes, Genetta genetta and Felis catus in the Balearic Islands. Rev d’ Ecol (Terre et Vie) 50:109–131Google Scholar
  20. Cook LM, Yalden DW (1980) A note on the diet of feral cats on Deserta Grande. Bocagiana 52:1–4Google Scholar
  21. Courchamp F, Langlais M, Sugihara G (1999) Control of rabbits to protect island birds from cat predation. Biol Conserv 89:219–225Google Scholar
  22. Courchamp F, Chapuis J-L, Pascal M (2003) Mammal invaders on islands: impact, control and control impact. Biol Rev 78:347–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cutberth R (2002) The role of introduced mammals and inverse density-dependent predation in the conservation of Hutton’s shearwater. Biol Conserv 108:69–78Google Scholar
  24. Derenne P (1976) Notes sur la biologie du chat haret de Kerguelen. Mammalia 40:531–593Google Scholar
  25. Derenne P, Mougin JL (1976) Données écologiques sur les mammifères introduits de l’Ile aux Cochons, Archipel Crozet. Mammalia 40:21–53Google Scholar
  26. Diamond J (1989) Overview of recent extinctions. In: Western D, Pearl MC (eds) Conservation for the twenty-First Century. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 37–41Google Scholar
  27. Dickman CR (1996) Overview of the impacts of feral cats on Australian native fauna. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra and Institute of Wildlife Research, University of SydneyGoogle Scholar
  28. Dilks PJ (1979) Observations on the food of feral cats on Campbell Island. N Z J Ecol 2:64–66Google Scholar
  29. Dowding JE, Murphy EC (2001) The impact of predation by introduced mammals on endemic shorebirds in New Zealand: a conservation perspective. Biol Conserv 99:47–64Google Scholar
  30. Driscoll CA, Menotti-Raymond M, Roca AL et al (2007) The Near Eastern origin of cat domestication. Science 317:519–523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Espinosa-Gayosso CV, Álvarez-Castañeda ST (2006) Status of Dipodomys insularis, an endemic species of San José Island, Gulf of California, Mexico. J Mammal 87:677–682Google Scholar
  32. Faulquier L, Fontaine R, Vidal E et al (2009) Feral cats Felis catus threaten endangered endemic Barau’s Petrel Pterodroma baraui at Réunion Island (western Indian Ocean). Waterbird 32:330–336Google Scholar
  33. Fitzgerald BM (1980) Feeding ecology of feral house cats in New Zealand forest. Carniv Genet News 4:67–71Google Scholar
  34. Fitzgerald BM (1988) Diet of domestic cats and their impact on prey populations. In: Turner DC, Bateson P (eds) The Domestic Cat: The Biology of Its Behaviour. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 123–147Google Scholar
  35. Fitzgerald BM, Karl BJ (1979) Foods of feral house cats (Felis catus L.) in forest of the Orongorongo Valley, Wellington. N Z J Zool 6:107–126Google Scholar
  36. Fitzgerald BM, Turner DC (2000) Hunting behaviour of domestic cats and their impact on prey populations. In: Turner DC, Bateson P (eds) The Domestic Cat: the biology of its behaviour. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 152–175Google Scholar
  37. Fitzgerald BM, Veitch CR (1985) The cats of Herekopare Island, New Zealand; their history, ecology and affects on birdlife. N Z J Zool 12:319–330Google Scholar
  38. Fitzgerald BM, Karl BJ, Veitch CR (1991) The diet of feral cats (Felis catus) on Raoul Island, Kermadec group. N Z J Ecol 15:123–129Google Scholar
  39. Fowler J, Cohen L, Jarvis P (1998) Practical statistics for field biology. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  40. Fritts TH, Rodda GH (1998) The role of introduced species in the degradation of island ecosystems:a case history of Guam. Ann Rev Ecol Evol Syst 29:113–140Google Scholar
  41. Furet L (1989) Régime alimentaire et distribution du chat haret (Felis catus) sur l’île Amsterdam. Rev d’Ecol (Terre et Vie) 44:33–45Google Scholar
  42. García-Márquez M, Caetano A, Bello I et al (1999) Ecología del gato cimarrón en el ecosistema termófilo de El Hierro (Islas Canarias) y su impacto sobre el lagarto gigante (Gallotia simonyi). Monogr Herpetol 4:207–222Google Scholar
  43. Gillies C (2001) Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990–2000: House cat. J Royal Soc N Z 31:205–218Google Scholar
  44. Harper GA (2004) Feral cats on Stewart Island/Rakiura. DOC Science Internal Series 174. New Zealand Department of Conservation, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  45. Harper GA (2005) Numerical and functional response of feral cats (Felis catus) to variations in abundance of primary prey on Stewart Island (Rakiura). N Z Wildl Res 32:594–604Google Scholar
  46. Hayde KA (1992) Ecology of the feral cat Felis catus on Great Dog Island. PhD, University of TasmaniaGoogle Scholar
  47. IUCN (2008). 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org (accessed December 2008)
  48. Jogahara T, Ogura G, Sasaki T et al (2003) Food habits of cats (Felis catus) in forests and villages and their impacts on native animals in the Yambaru area, northern part of Okinawa Island, Japan. Mamm Science 43:29–37Google Scholar
  49. Jones E (1977) Ecology of the feral cat. Felis catus (L.), (Carnivora: Felidae) on Macquarie Island. Austral Wildl Res 4:249–262Google Scholar
  50. Jones E (1980) A survey of burrow-nesting petrels at Macquarie Island based upon remains left by predators. Notornis 27:11–20Google Scholar
  51. Jones C (2002) A model for the conservation management of a “secondary” prey: sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) colonies on mainland New Zealand as a case study. Biol Conserv 108:1–12Google Scholar
  52. Jones ME, Barmuta LA (1998) Diet overlap and relative abundance of sympatric dasyurid carnivores:a hypothesis of competition. J Anim Ecol 67:410–421Google Scholar
  53. Jones M, Dickman C, Archer M (eds) (2003) Predators with pouches: the biology of carnivorous marsupials. CSIRO, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  54. Karl BJ, Best HA (1982) Feral cats on Stewart Island; their foods, and their effects on kakapo. N Z J Ecol 9:287–294Google Scholar
  55. Kawakami K, Mashiko M (2008) Food habits of cat Felis catus on Haha-jima Island, Bonin Islands, Japan. Bulletin of the Bonin Islands study of Tokyo Metoropolitan University. 31:41–48Google Scholar
  56. Kawauchi N, Sasaki T (2002) Foods habits and distribution of the three introduced Carnivores (mongoose, feral cat, feral dog) in forest region of northern part of Okinawa Island. Biol Mag Okinawa 40:41–50Google Scholar
  57. Keitt BS, Tershy BR (2003) Cat eradication significantly decreases shearwater mortality. Anim Conserv 6:307–308Google Scholar
  58. Keitt BS, Wilcox C, Tershy BR et al (2002) The effect of feral cats on the population viability of black-vented shearwaters (Puffinus opisthomelas) on Natividad Island, Mexico. Anim Conserv 5:217–223Google Scholar
  59. King CM, Flux M, Innes JG et al (1996) Population biology of small mammals in Pureora forest park: 1. Carnivores (Mustela erminea, M. furo, M. nivalis, and Felis catus). N Z J Ecol 20:241–251Google Scholar
  60. Kirkpatrick RD, Rauzon MJ (1986) Foods of feral cats Felis catus on Jarvis and Howland Islands, Central Pacific Ocean. Biotropica 18:72–75Google Scholar
  61. Konecny MJ (1983) Behavioral ecology of feral house cats in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Unpubl. Ph. D. dissertation. Univ. Florida, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  62. Konecny MJ (1987) Food habits and energetics of feral house cat in the Galapagos Islands. Oikos 50:24–32Google Scholar
  63. Krebs CJ (1989) Ecological methodology. Harper Collins Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. Langham NPE (1990) The diet of feral cats (Felis catus L.) on Hawke′s Bay farmland, New Zealand. N Z J Zool 17:243–255Google Scholar
  65. Long JL (2003) Introduced mammals of the world: their history, distribution, and influence. CABI Publishing, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  66. Lozano J, Moleón M, Virgós E (2006) Biogeographical patterns in the diet of the wildcat, Felis silvestris Scherber, in Eurasia: factors affecting the trophic diversity. J Biogeogr 33:1076–1085Google Scholar
  67. Macdonald DW, Thom MD (2001) Alien carnivores: unwelcome experiments in ecological theory. In: Gittleman JL, Funk SM, Macdonald DW et al (eds) Carnivore conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 93–122Google Scholar
  68. Marshall WH (1961) A note on the food habits of feral cats on Little Barrier Island, New Zealand. N Z J Sci 4:822–824Google Scholar
  69. Martínez-Gómez JE, Jacobsen JK (2004) The conservation status of Townsend’s shearwater Puffinus auricularis auricularis. Biol Conserv 116:35–47Google Scholar
  70. Matias R, Catry P (2008) The diet of feral cats at New Island, Falkland Islands, and impact on breeding seabirds. Polar Biol 31:609–616Google Scholar
  71. Medina FM, García R (2007) Predation of insects by feral cats (Felis silvestris catus L., 1758) on an oceanic island (La Palma, Canary Island). J Insect Conserv 11:203–207Google Scholar
  72. Medina FM, Nogales M (1993) Dieta del gato cimarrón (Felis catus L.) en el piso basal del Macizo de Teno (Noroeste de Tenerife). Doñana Acta Vert 20:291–297Google Scholar
  73. Medina FM, García R, Nogales M (2006) Feeding ecology of feral cats on a heterogeneous subtropical oceanic island (La Palma, Canarian Archipelago). Acta Theriol 51:75–83Google Scholar
  74. Medina FM, López-Darias M, Nogales M et al (2008) Food habits of feral cats (Felis silvestris catus L.) in insular semiarid environments (Fuerteventura, Canary Islands). Wildl Res 35:162–169Google Scholar
  75. Medina FM, Bonnaud E, Nogales M et al. (2010) A global review of the impacts of invasive cats on insular endangered vertebrates (In Review in Biological Review)Google Scholar
  76. Mukherjee S, Goyal SP, Jonhsingh AJT et al (2004) The importance of rodents in the diet of jungle cat (Felis catus), caracal (Caracal caracal) and golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. J Zool 262:405–411Google Scholar
  77. Murphy EC, Keedwell RJ, Brown KP et al (2004) Diet of mammalian predators in braided river beds in the central South Island, New Zealand. Wildl Res 31:631–638Google Scholar
  78. Nogales M, Medina FM (1996) A review of the diet of feral domestic cats (Felis silvestris f. catus) on the Canary Islands, with new data from the laurel forest of La Gomera. Z Säugetier 61:1–6Google Scholar
  79. Nogales M, Medina FM (2009) Trophic ecology of feral cats (Felis silvestris f. catus) in the main environments of an oceanic archipelago (Canary Islands): an updated approach. Mammal Biol 74:169–181Google Scholar
  80. Nogales M, Martín A, Delgado G et al (1988) Food spectrum of the feral cat (Felis catus L., 1758) in the juniper woodland on El Hierro (Canary Islands). Bonn zool Beitr 39:1–6Google Scholar
  81. Nogales M, Abdola M, Alonso C et al (1990) Premières données sur l’alimentation du chat haret (Felis catus L., 1758) du Parc National du Teide. Ténérife (Iles Canaries). Mammalia 54:189–195Google Scholar
  82. Nogales M, Rodríguez JL, Delgado G et al (1992) The diet of feral cats (Felis catus) on Alegranza Island (north of Lanzarote, Canary Islands). Folia Zool 41:209–212Google Scholar
  83. Nogales M, Martín A, Tershy BR et al (2004) A review of feral cat eradication on islands. Conserv Biol 18:310–319Google Scholar
  84. Oro D, Aguilar JS, Igual JM et al (2004) Modelling demography and extinction risk in the endangered Balearic shearwater. Biol Conserv 116:93–102Google Scholar
  85. Pearre S Jr, Maass R (1998) Trends in the prey size-based trophic niches of feral and house cats Felis catus L. Mammal Rev 28:125–139Google Scholar
  86. Peck DR, Faulquier L, Pinet P et al (2008) Feral cat diet and impact on sooty terns at Juan de Nova Island, Mozambique Channel. Anim Conserv 11:65–74Google Scholar
  87. Phillips RB, Winchell CS, Schmidt RH (2007) Dietary overlap of an alien and native carnivore on San Clemente Island, California. J Mammal 88:173–180Google Scholar
  88. Pontier D, Say L, Debias F et al (2002) The diet of feral cats (Felis catus L.) at five sites on the Grande Terre, Kerguelen archipelago. Polar Biol 25:833–837Google Scholar
  89. Ratcliffe N, Bell M, Pelembe T et al (2009) The eradication of feral cats from Ascension Island and its subsequent recolonization by seabirds. Oryx 44:20–29Google Scholar
  90. Rauzon MJ (1983) Feral cats of Jarvis Island: their effects on seabirds and their eradication. M.Sc Thesis, University of Hawaii, ManoaGoogle Scholar
  91. Rauzon MJ (1985) Feral cats on Jarvis Island: their effects and their eradication. Atoll Res Bull 282:1–32Google Scholar
  92. Rauzon MJ, Forsell DJ, Flint EN et al. (2011-in press) Howland, Baker and Jarvis Islands 25 years after cat eradication: recovery in a bio-geographical contextGoogle Scholar
  93. Rodríguez-Estrella R, Arnaud G, Álvarez S et al (1991) Predation by feral cats on birds at Isla Socorro, Mexico. Western Birds 22:141–143Google Scholar
  94. Roemer G, Donlan C, Courchamp F (2002) Golden eagles, feral pigs, and insular carnivores: How exotic species turn native predators into prey? Proc Nat Acad Sci, USA 99:791–796Google Scholar
  95. Santana F, Martín A, Nogales M (1986) Datos sobre la alimentación del gato cimarrón (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) en los montes de Pajonales, Ojeda e Inagua (Gran Canaria). Vieraea 16:113–117Google Scholar
  96. Say L, Devillard S, Natoli E et al (2002) The mating system of feral cats (Feliscatus L.) in a sub-Antarctic environment. Polar Biol 25:838–842Google Scholar
  97. Schall JJ, Pianka ER (1978) Geographical trends in numbers of species. Science 201:679–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Seabrook W (1989) Feral cats (Felis catus) as predators of hatchling green turtles (Chelonias mydas). J Zool 219:83–88Google Scholar
  99. Seabrook W (1990) The impact of the feral cat (Felis catus) on the native fauna on Aldabra Atoll, Seychelles. Rev d’Ecol (Terre et Vie) 45:135–145Google Scholar
  100. Sinclair ARE, Pech RP, Dickman CR et al (1998) Predicting effects of predation on conservation of endangered prey. Conserv Biol 12:564–575Google Scholar
  101. Smucker TD, Lindsey GD, Mosher SN (2000) Home range and diet of feral cats in Hawaii forests. Pacific Conserv Biol 6:228–237Google Scholar
  102. Snetsinger TJ, Fancy SG, Simon JC et al (1994) Diets of owls and feral cats in Hawaii. Elepaio 54:47–50Google Scholar
  103. Sokal RR, Rohlf JF (1995) Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research. Freeman and Co, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  104. Sousa KS, Bager A (2008) Feeding habits of Geoffroy’s cat (Leopardus geoffroyi) in Southern Brazil. Mammal Biol 73:303–308Google Scholar
  105. Stattersfield AJ, Capper DR (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  106. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS (1996) Using multivariate statistics. Harper Collins Collegue Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  107. Taylor RH (1979) How the Macquarie island parakeet became extinct. NZ J Ecol 2:42–45Google Scholar
  108. Tidemann CR, Yorkston HD, Russack AJ (1994) The diet of Cats, Felis catus, on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Wildl Res 21:279–286Google Scholar
  109. Trites AW, Joy R (2005) Dietary analysis from scat samples:how many scats are enough? J Mammal 86:704–712Google Scholar
  110. Van Aarde RJ (1980) The diet and feeding behaviour of feral cats, Felis catus at Marion Island. S African J Wildl Res 10:123–128Google Scholar
  111. Van Aarde RJ (1986) A case study of an alien predator (Felis catus) introduced on Marion Island:selective advantages. S African J Antarc Res 16:113–114Google Scholar
  112. Van Rensburg PJJ (1985) The feeding ecology of a decreasing feral house cat, Felis catus, population at Marion Island. In: Siegfried WR, Condy PR, Laws RM (eds) Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Foods Webs. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 620–624Google Scholar
  113. Vigne J-D, Guilaine J, Debue K et al (2004) Early taming of the cat in Cyprus. Science 304:259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Vitousek P, Loope L, Adsersen H (1995) Islands: biological diversity and ecosystem function. Ecological Studies 115. Wûrburg and Mooney, Lange, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  115. Watanabe S, Nakanishi N, Izawa M (2003) Habitat and prey resource overlap between the Irimote cat Prionailurus iriomotensis and introduced feral cat Felis catus based on assessment of scat content and distribution. Mamm Study 28:47–56Google Scholar
  116. Whittaker RJ, Fernández-Palacios JM (2007) Island biogeography: ecology, evolution and conservation. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Bonnaud
    • 1
    • 2
  • F. M. Medina
    • 3
  • E. Vidal
    • 1
  • M. Nogales
    • 4
  • B. Tershy
    • 5
  • E. Zavaleta
    • 6
  • C. J. Donlan
    • 7
    • 8
  • B. Keitt
    • 9
  • M. Le Corre
    • 10
  • S. V. Horwath
    • 9
  1. 1.Mediterranean Institute for Ecology and Palaeoecology (UMR CNRS/IRD)Aix-Marseille University (Université P. Cezanne)Aix-en-Provence cedex 04France
  2. 2.Ecology Systematic and Evolution, UMR CNRS 8079, Paris Sud UniversityORSAY CedexFrance
  3. 3.Consejería de Medio AmbienteCabildo Insular de La PalmaSanta Cruz de La PalmaSpain
  4. 4.Island Ecology and Evolution Research Group (IPNA-CSIC)TenerifeSpain
  5. 5.Ecology & Evolutionary Biology DepartmentUniversity of California, Santa CruzSanta CruzUSA
  6. 6.Environmental Studies DepartmentUniversity of CaliforniaSanta CruzUSA
  7. 7.Advanced Conservation StrategiesDriggsUSA
  8. 8.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyCornell UniversityMidwayUSA
  9. 9.Island Conservation, Long Marine LaboratoryUniversity of CaliforniaSanta CruzU.S.A
  10. 10.Lab ECOMAR, Université de La RéunionSaint DenisLa RéunionFrance

Personalised recommendations