Biological Invasions

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 559–569 | Cite as

European hare (Lepus europaeus) invasion ecology: implication for the conservation of the endemic Irish hare (Lepus timidus hibernicus)

  • Neil ReidEmail author
Original Paper


European hare Lepus europaeus populations have undergone recent declines but the species has successfully naturalised in many countries outside its native range. It was introduced to Ireland during the mid-late nineteenth century for field sport and is now well established in Northern Ireland. The native Irish hare Lepus timidus hibernicus is an endemic subspecies of mountain hare L. timidus and has attracted major conservation concern following a long-term population decline during the twentieth century and is one of the highest priority species for conservation action in Ireland. Little is known about the European hare in Ireland or whether it poses a significant threat to the native mountain hare subspecies by compromising its ecological security or genetic integrity. We review the invasion ecology of the European hare and examine evidence for interspecific competition with the mountain hare for habitat space and food resources, interspecific hybridisation, disease and parasite transmission and possible impacts of climate change. We also examine the impact that introduced hares can have on native non-lagomorph species. We conclude that the European hare is an emerging and significant threat to the conservation status of the native Irish hare. Invasive mammal species have been successfully eradicated from Ireland before and immediate action is often the only opportunity for cost-effective eradication. An urgent call is issued for further research whilst the need for a European hare invasive Species Action Plan (iSAP) and Eradication strategy are discussed.


Climate change Eradication Hybridisation Interspecific competition Mountain hare Lepus timidus 



This review was commissioned and funded by the Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA) through the Natural Heritage Research Partnership (NHRP) with Quercus, Queen’s University Belfast (QUB) under the advisement of the European hare sub-group of the Irish hare Species Action Plan Steering Group. Many thanks to Prof. Ian W. Montogmery (Professor of Animal Ecology, QUB), Dr. Paulo A. Prodöhl (Reader in Population and Evolutionary Genetics, QUB), Dr. Carl-Gustav Thulin (Researcher in Population and Conservation Biology, Uppsala Universitet), Prof. Paulo C. Alves (President of the World Lagomorph Society), Prof. Klaus Hackländer (Secretary of the World Lagomorph Society), Dr. Andrew T. Smith (Chair of the IUCN Species Survival Commission: Lagomorph Specialist Group), Andrew Upton (Chair of the Irish hare Species Action Plan Steering Group and European hare sub-group), Prof. Daniel Simberloff (Editor-in-Chief, Biological Invasions) and one anonymous referee for comments on the manuscript.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Quercus, School of Biological SciencesQueen’s University BelfastBelfastNorthern Ireland (UK)

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