Biological Invasions

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 215–237 | Cite as

Alien species along the Italian coasts: an overview

  • Anna Occhipinti-AmbrogiEmail author
  • Agnese Marchini
  • Grazia Cantone
  • Alberto Castelli
  • Carla Chimenz
  • Mario Cormaci
  • Carlo Froglia
  • Giovanni Furnari
  • Maria Cristina Gambi
  • Giuseppe Giaccone
  • Adriana Giangrande
  • Cinzia Gravili
  • Francesco Mastrototaro
  • Cristina Mazziotti
  • Lidia Orsi-Relini
  • Stefano Piraino
Original Paper


We present a contribution to the knowledge of marine and brackish water alien species (infraspecific taxa included) recorded along the Italian coasts. The Italian Peninsula, with over 7,000 km of coastline, is located in the center of the Mediterranean Sea, splitting the Western and the Eastern basins. Data were collected from published material, mostly authored by the experts of different marine taxa participating in the “Allochthonous Species Group” of the Italian Society of Marine Biology (SIBM). The data have been reviewed according to the taxonomic expertise of the authors and are organized in a referenced database containing information on each species about: distribution along Italian coasts, the native range, most probable vectors of introduction, population status and impact. The total number of marine alien species recorded along Italian coasts during the selected time period 1945–2009 is relatively high: 165 species, in many cases native from tropical regions of the world. Most of them were introduced in the 1980s and 1990s, whereas in the last few years the number of new records has decreased. The highest number of alien species has been observed in the northern Adriatic Sea, particularly in the Lagoon of Venice, which is the main hotspot of introduction. Of the total number of species, 46% was unable to establish resident populations in the Italian seas; 15% (24 species) rapidly increased their populations and extended their geographical range, consequently they may be considered invasive species.


Allochthonous species Non-indigenous species Italy Mediterranean Sea Vectors of introduction Marine invertebrates Fishes Macrophytes 



The generous support of the Italian Society of Marine Biology (SIBM) and especially that of Prof. Giulio Relini has been of invaluable help. All the components of SIBM Working Group on “Allochthonous Species” who over the years have contributed to the compilation of Italian National Reports for the ICES-WGITMO (Working Group on Introduction and transfer of Marine Organisms) are gratefully acknowledged. We gratefully thank Prof. Bella Galil of Oceanographic and Limnological Research Institute of Haifa (Israel) for her help in cross-checking the alien species list and the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.


  1. Astraldi M, Bianchi CN, Gasparini GP, Morri C (1995) Climatic fluctuations, current variability and marine species distribution: a case study in the Ligurian Sea (north-west Mediterranean). Oceanol Acta 18(2):139–149Google Scholar
  2. Azzurro E, Andaloro F (2004) A new settled population of the lessepsian migrant Siganus luridus (Pisces: Siganidae) in Linosa Island—Sicily Strait. J Mar Biol Ass UK 84:819–821. doi: 10.1017/S0025315404009993h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azzurro E, Golani D, Bucciarelli G (2006) Genetics of the early stages of invasion of the Lessepsian rabbitfish Siganus luridus. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 333:190–201. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2005.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balata D, Piazzi L, Cinelli F (2004) A comparison among assemblages in areas invaded by Caulerpa taxifolia and C. racemosa in a subtidal Mediterranean rocky bottom. Mar Ecol 25:1–13. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0485.2004.00013.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bax N, Williamson A, Aguero M, Gonzalez E, Geeves W (2003) Marine invasive alien species: a threat to global biodiversity. Mar Policy 27:313–323. doi: 10.1016/S0308-597X(03)00041-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bello G (2008) Cephalopoda. In: Relini G (ed) Checklist della Flora e della Fauna dei Mari Italiani. Parte I. Biol Mar Medit 15(Suppl 1):318–322Google Scholar
  7. Bendoricchio G, Coffaro G, De Marchi C (1994) A trophic model for Ulva rigida in the lagoon of Venice. Ecol Model 75–76:85–496. doi: 10.1016/0304-3800(94)90042-6 Google Scholar
  8. Bianchi CN (2004) Proposta di suddivisione dei mari Italiani in settori biogeografici. Notiziario SIBM 46:57–59Google Scholar
  9. Bianchi CN (2007) Biodiversity issues for the forthcoming tropical Mediterranean Sea. Hydrobiologia 580:7–21. doi: 10.1007/s10750-006-0469-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bianchi CN, Morri C (2000) Marine biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: situation, problems and prospects for future research. Mar Pollut Bull 40:367–376. doi: 10.1016/S0025-326X(00)00027-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boero F, Putti M, Trainito E, Prontera E, Piraino S, Shiganova T (2009) First records of Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora) from the Ligurian, Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas (Western Mediterranean) and first record of Phyllorhiza punctata (Cnidaria) from the Western Mediterranean. Aquat Invasions 4:675–680. doi: 10.3391/ai.2009.4.4.13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brément E (1913) Sur la présence, en Méditerranée, d’une variété de l’Aplidium lacteum Huitf., Synascidie artique et subartique. Bulletin de l’Institut Océanographique 269:1–11Google Scholar
  13. Brunetti R, Mastrototaro F (2004) The non-indigenous stolidobranch ascidian Polyandrocarpa zorritensis in the Mediterranean: description, larval morphology and pattern of vascular budding. Zootaxa 528:1–8Google Scholar
  14. BWM (2005) International Convention on the control and management of ship’s ballast water and sediments. International Maritime Organization, London. Accessed 15 December 2009
  15. Cannicci S, Garcia L, Galil BS (2008) Racing across the Mediterranean first record of Percnon gibbesi (Crustacea: Decapoda: Grapsidae) in Greece. Mar Biodivers Rec 1:e32. doi: 10.1017/S1755267206003009
  16. Carlton JT (1996) Biological invasions and cryptogenic species. Ecology 77:1653–1655. doi: 10.2307/2265767 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carlton JT (2002) Bioinvasion ecology: assessing invasion impact and scale. In: Leppäkoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin S (eds) Invasive aquatic species of Europe—distribution, impacts and management. Kluwer, Dordrecht, Boston, London, pp 7–19Google Scholar
  18. Carrera-Parra LF (2006) Revision of Lumbrineris de Blainville, 1828 (Polychaeta: Lumbrineridae). Zootaxa 1336:1–64Google Scholar
  19. Cavallo O, Repetto G (1992) Conchiglie fossili del Roero, Atlante iconografico. Associazione Naturalistica Piemontese Amici del Museo “F. Eusebio”, Alba, pp 251Google Scholar
  20. Ceccherelli G, Piazzi L, Balata D (2002) Spread of introduced Caulerpa species in macroalgal habitats. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 280:1–11. doi: 10.1016/S0022-0981(02)00336-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cecere E, Petrocelli A (2004) Floristic and biogeographic considerations about the benthic macroalgal flora in the Gulf of Taranto. Biogeographia 25:7–18Google Scholar
  22. Cecere E, Petrocelli A (2008) The disappearance of two non-indigenous species from the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Southern Italy, Mediterranean Sea) (abstract). In: 2nd Conference; 23–25 oct 2008 LaguNet, Saline di Tarquinia (VT), ItalyGoogle Scholar
  23. Cecere E, Petrocelli A, Saracino OD (2000) Undaria pinnatifida (Fucophyceae, Laminariales) spread in the central Mediterranean: its occurrence in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, southern Italy). Cryptogamie Algol 21:305–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. CIESM (2002) Alien marine organisms introduced by ship in the Mediterranean and Black seas. CIESM Workshop Monographs No. 20, CIESM, Monaco. Accessed 15 December 2009
  25. CIESM (2008) Climate warming and related changes in Mediterranean marine biota. CIESM Workshop Monographs No. 35, CIESM, Monaco. Accessed 15 December 2009
  26. Cinar ME (2009) Alien polychaete species (Annelida: Polychaeta) on the southern coast of Turkey (Levantine Sea, eastern Mediterranean), with 13 new records for the Mediterranean Sea. J Nat Hist 43:2283–2328. doi: 10.1080/00222930903094654 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen AN, Carlton JT (1998) Accelerating invasion rate in a highly invaded estuary. Science 279:555–558. doi: 10.1126/science.279.5350.555 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Copp GH, Vilizzi L, Mumford J, Fenwick GV, Godard MJ, Gozlan RE (2009) Calibration of FISK, an invasiveness screening tool for non-native freshwater fishes. Risk Anal 29:457–467. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2008.01159.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cormaci M, Furnari G, Giaccone G, Serio D (2004) Alien macrophytes in the Mediterranean Sea: a review. In: Pandalai SG (ed) Recent research developments in environmental biology. Research Signpost, Trivandrum, pp 153–202Google Scholar
  30. Corriero G, Longo C, Mercurio M, Marchini A, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2007) Benthic taxocoenoses on artificial hard-bottoms in the Venice lagoon: spatial distribution and temporal changes in the northern basin. Ital J Zool 74:21–29. doi: 10.1080/11250000601084100 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Curiel D, Bellemo G, Marzocchi M, Scattolin M, Parisi G (1998) Distribution of introduced Japanese macroalgae Undaria pinnatifida, Sargassum muticum (Phaeophyta) and Antithamnion pectinatum (Rhodophyta) in the Lagoon of Venice. Hydrobiologia 385:17–22. doi: 10.1023/A:1003437105147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. De Min R, Vio E (1998) Molluschi esotici nell’Alto Adriatico. ANNALES Ser Hist Nat 13:43–54Google Scholar
  33. Dittel AI, Epifanio CE (2009) Invasion biology of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinsensis: a brief review. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 374:79–92. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2009.04.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dulčić J, Grbec B, Lipej L, Paklar GB, Supić N, Smirčić A (2004) The effect of the hemispheric climatic oscillations on the Adriatic ichthyofauna. Fresenius Environ Bull 13:293–298Google Scholar
  35. Faccia I, Alyakrinsky A, Bianchi CN (2009) The crab that came in from the cold: first record of Paralithoides camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815) in the Mediterranean Sea. Aquat Invasions 4:715–718. doi: 10.3391/ai.2009.4.4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Flagella MM, Soria A, Buia MC (2006) Shipping traffic and introduction of non-indigenous organisms: study case in two Italian harbours. Ocean Coast Manage 49:947–960. doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2006.08.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Flagella MM, Verlaque M, Soria A, Buia MC (2007) Macroalgal survival in ballast water tanks. Mar Pollut Bull 54:1395–1401. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.05.015 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Flagella M, Lorenti M, Buia MC (2008) Temperature response in a shallow water Mediterranean population of Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta), and a possible strategy of season anticipation. Bot Mar 51:278–284. doi: 10.1515/BOT.2008.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Florio M, Breber P, Scirocco T, Specchiulli A, Cilenti L, Lumare L (2008) Exotic species in Lesina and Varano Lakes: Gargano National Park (Italy). Trans Wat Bull 2:69–79. doi: 10.1285/i1825229Xv2n2p69 Google Scholar
  40. Francour P, Boudouresque CF, Harmelin JG, Harmelin-Vivien ML, Quignard JP (1994) Are the Mediterranean waters becoming warmer? Information from biological indicators. Mar Poll Bull 28:523–526. doi: 10.1016/0025-326X(94)90071-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Froglia C (2010) Crustacea Decapoda. In Relini G (ed) Checklist della Flora e della Fauna dei Mari Italiani. Parte II. Biol Mar Medit 17(Suppl 1) (in preparation)Google Scholar
  42. Galil B (2004) Report of the CIESM round table on port surveys in the Mediterranean Sea for ship-transported alien organisms. In: 37th CIESM Congress, Barcelona, 10 June 2004. Accessed 15 December 2009
  43. Galil BS (2008) Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea—which, when, where, why? Hydrobiologia 606:105–116. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9342-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Galil BS (2009) Taking stock: inventory of alien species in the Mediterranean sea. Biol Invasions 11:359–372. doi: 10.1007/s10530-008-9253-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Galil B, Froglia C, Noël P (2002) CIESM Atlas of exotic species in the Mediterranean—vol 2 Crustaceans decapods and stomatopods. CIESM, MonacoGoogle Scholar
  46. Galil BS, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A, Gollasch S (2008) Biodiversity impacts of species introductions via marine vessels. In: Abdulla A, Linden O (eds) Maritime traffic effects on biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea: review of impacts, priority areas and mitigation measures. IUCN Centre for Mediterranean Cooperation, Malaga, pp 117–158Google Scholar
  47. Gherardi F, Bertolino S, Bodon M, Casellato S, Cianfanelli S, Ferraguti M, Lori E, Mura G, Nocita A, Riccardi N, Rossetti G, Rota E, Scalera R, Zerunian S, Tricarico E (2008) Animal xenodiversity in Italian inland waters: distribution, modes of arrival, and pathways. Biol Invasions 10:435–454. doi: 10.1007/s10530-007-9142-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Giangrande A, Gambi MC, Fresi E (1981) Two species of Polychaetes new to the Mediterranean fauna. Boll Zool 48:311–317Google Scholar
  49. Golani D, Orsi-Relini L, Massutí E, Quignard JP (2002) CIESM Atlas of exotic species in the Mediterranean—vol 1 fishes. CIESM, MonacoGoogle Scholar
  50. Golani D, Azzurro E, Corsini-Foka M, Falautano M, Andaloro F, Bernardi G (2007) Genetic bottlenecks and successful biological invasions: the case of a recent Lessepsian migrant. Biol Lett 3:541–545. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2007.0308 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gollasch S (2007) International collaboration on marine bioinvasions: the ICES response. Mar Pollut Bull 55:353–359. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2006.11.009 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gruppo Alloctoni SIBM coordinated by Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2004) Introduced marine species in Italy. Biol Mar Medit 11:192Google Scholar
  53. Guala I, Flagella MM, Andreakis N, Procaccini G, Kooistra WHCF, Buia MC (2004) Aliens: algal introductions to European shores. Biogeographia 24:45–52Google Scholar
  54. Guidetti P, Giardina F, Azzurro E (2010) A new record of Cephalopholis taeniops in the Mediterranean Sea, with considerations on the Sicily channel as a biogeographical crossroad of exotic fish. Mar Biodivers Rec 3:e13. doi: 10.1017/S1755267210000023
  55. Hewitt CL, Martin RB (2001) Revised protocols for baseline port surveys for introduced marine species—design considerations, sampling protocols and taxonomic sufficiency. CRIMP Technical Report Number 22. CSIRO Marine Research, HobartGoogle Scholar
  56. Hulme PE, Pysek P, Nentwig W, Vila M (2009) Will threat of biological invasions unite the European Union? Science 324:40–41. doi: 10.1126/science.1171111 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Krapp-Schickel G (1976) Die Gattung Stenothoe (Crustacea, Amphipoda) im Mittlemeer. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 46:1–34Google Scholar
  58. Krapp-Schickel G (1982) Family Amphitoidae. In: Ruffo S (ed) The Amphipoda of the Mediterranean—part 1 Gammaridea. Mém Inst Océanogr Monaco 13: 94–110Google Scholar
  59. Leppäkoski E, Olenin S (2000) Xenodiversity of the European brackish water seas: the North American contribution. In: Pederson J (ed) Marine Bioinvasions. Proceedings of the First National Conference, January 24–27, 1999, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, pp 107–119Google Scholar
  60. Leppäkoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin S (eds) (2002) Invasive aquatic species of Europe: distribution, impacts and management. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  61. Li Greci F, Costa F, Berdar A (1987) Rinvenimento nelle acque italiane di Dicologoglossa hexophthalma (Bennet, 1831) (Pisces: Soleidae), morfologia ed otoliti. Atti della Società Peloritana di Scienze 31:25–32Google Scholar
  62. Longo C, Mastrototaro F, Corriero G (2007) Occurrence of Paraleucilla magna (Porifera: Calcarea) in the Mediterranean Sea. J Mar Biol Ass UK 87:1749–1755. doi: 10.1017/S0025315407057748 Google Scholar
  63. Mann R, Harding JM (2000) Invasion of the North American Atlantic coast by a large predatory Asian mollusc. Biol Invasions 2:7–22. doi: 10.1023/A:1010038325620 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mastrototaro F, Brunetti R (2006) The non-indigenous ascidian Distaplia bermudensis in the Mediterranean: comparison with the native species Distaplia magnilarva and Distaplia lucillae sp. nov. J Mar Biol Ass UK 86:81–185. doi: 10.1017/S0025315406013014 Google Scholar
  65. Mastrototaro F, Matarrese A, D’Onghia G (2003) Occurrence of Musculista senhousia (Mollusca, Bivalvia) in the Taranto seas (Eastern-Central Mediterranean Sea). J Mar Biol Ass UK 83:1279–1280. doi: 10.1017/S002531540300866X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mastrototaro F, Petrocelli A, Cecere E, Matarrese A (2004a) Non indigenous species settled down in the Taranto seas. Biogeographia 25:47–54Google Scholar
  67. Mastrototaro F, Panetta P, D’Onghia G (2004b) Further records of Melibe viridis (Mollusca, Nudibranchia) in the Mediterranean Sea, with observation of spawn. Vie Milieu 54:251–253Google Scholar
  68. Mastrototaro F, D’Onghia G, Tursi A (2008a) Spatial and seasonal distribution of ascidians in a semi-enclosed basin of the Mediterranean Sea. J Mar Biol Ass UK 88:1053–1061. doi: 10.1017/S0025315408001392 Google Scholar
  69. Mastrototaro F, Giove A, D’Onghia G, Tursi A, Matarrese A, Gadaleta MV (2008b) Benthic diversity of the soft bottoms in a semi-enclosed basin of the Mediterranean Sea. J Mar Biol Ass UK 88:247–252. doi: 10.1017/S0025315408000726 Google Scholar
  70. McNeill J, Barrie FR, Burdet HM, Demoulin V, Hawksworth DL, Marhold K, Nocolson DH, Prado J, Silva PC, Skog JE, Wiersema JH, Turland NJ (2006) International code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code) adopted by the Seventeenth International Botanical Congress Vienna, Austria, July 2005. ARG Gantner Verlag, Ruggell, pp 568Google Scholar
  71. Minchin D, Floerl O, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A, Savini D (2006) Small craft and the spread of exotic species. In: Davenport J, Davenport JD (eds) The ecology of transportation: managing mobility for the environment. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 99–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mistri M (2003) The non-indigenous mussel Musculista senhousia in an Adriatic lagoon: effects on benthic community over a ten year period. J Mar Biol Ass UK 83:1277–1278. doi: 10.1017/S0025315403008658 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mizzan L (1999) Le specie alloctone del macrozoobenthos della Laguna di Venezia: il punto della situazione. Boll Mus Civ St Nat Venezia 49:145–177Google Scholar
  74. Molnar JL, Gamboa RL, Revenga C, Spalding MD (2008) Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. Front Ecol Environ 6:485–492. doi: 10.1890/070064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Montefalcone M, Morri C, Peirano A, Albertelli G, Bianchi CN (2007) Substitution and phase shift within the Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows of NW Mediterranean Sea. Estuar Coast Shelf S 75:63–71. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2007.03.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Montefalcone M, Albertelli G, Morri C, Bianchi CN (2010) Patterns of wide-scale substitution within meadows of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica in NW Mediterranean Sea: invaders are stronger than natives. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst (in press). doi: 10.1002/aqc.1128
  77. Morello EB, Solustri C, Froglia C (2004) The alien bivalve Anadara demiri (Arcidae): a new invader of the Adriatic Sea, Italy. J Mar Biol Ass UK 84:1057–1064. doi: 10.1017/S0025315404010410h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Munari C, Mistri M (2008) Biodiversity of soft-sediment benthic communities from Italian transitional waters. J Biogeogr 35:1622–1637. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2008.01919.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2000) Biotic invasions in a Mediterranean lagoon. Biol Invasions 2:165–176. doi: 10.1023/A:1010004926405 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2002) Current status of aquatic introductions in Italy. In: Leppakoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin S (eds) Invasive Aquatic species of Europe. Distribution impacts and management. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 311–324Google Scholar
  81. Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2007) National report, Italy. In: ICES-WGITMO Report of the Working Group on Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms, Dubrovnik. pp. 75-83 Accessed 15 December 2009
  82. Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2008) National report, Italy. In: ICES-WGITMO Report of the Working Group on Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms, Copenhagen, pp 113–118. Accessed 15 December 2009
  83. Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2009) National report, Italy. In: ICES-WGITMO Report of the Working Group on Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms, Washington DC, pp 81–89. Accessed 15 December 2009
  84. Occhipinti-Ambrogi A, Galil B (2004) A uniform terminology on bioinvasions: a chimera or an operative tool? Mar Pollut Bull 49:688–694. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.08.011 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Occhipinti-Ambrogi A, Galil B (2010) Marine alien species as an aspect of global change. Adv Oceanogr Limnol (in press)Google Scholar
  86. Occhipinti-Ambrogi A, Savini D (2003) Biological invasions as a component of global change in stressed marine ecosystems. Mar Pollut Bull 46:542–551. doi: 10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00363-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Orsi Relini L, Costa M R, Relini M (2010) First record of the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor in the Mediterranean. Mar Biodivers Rec 3:e4. doi: 10.1017/S1755267209991096
  88. Orsi-Relini L (2009) Non native marine fish in Italian waters. In: Golani D, Golani-Appelbaum B (eds) Fish invasions of the Mediterranean Sea: changes and renewal. Pensoft, Sofia, pp 35–56Google Scholar
  89. Parona C (1909) Esistono gli Ostracionidi nel Mediterraneo? A proposito del rinvenimento di un Ostracion triqueter Lin. nelle acque del Porto di Genova. Atti Società Linguistica Scienze Naturali e Geografia 20:49–57Google Scholar
  90. Peart RA (2004) A revision of the Cymadusa filosa complex (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Corophioidea: Ampithoidae). J Nat Hist 38:301–336. doi: 10.1080/0022293021000055441 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pedersen J, Bullock R, Carlton J, Dijkstra J, Dobrroski N, Dyrynda P, Fisher R, Harris L, Hobbs N, Lambert G, Lazo-Wasem E, Mathieson A, Miglietta M, Smith J, Smith III J, Tyrrell M (2003) Marine Invaders in the Northeast. Rapid assessment survey of non-native and native marine species of floating dock communities. MIT Sea Grant College Program Publication No. 05-3, 41 pp. Accessed 15 December 2009
  92. Pellizzato M, Scattolin M (1982) Materiali per una Bibliografia sulla Laguna di Venezia. Consorzio per lo Sviluppo della Pesca e dell’Acquicoltura del Veneto, ChioggiaGoogle Scholar
  93. Perrone A (1983) Opistobranchi (Aplisiomorpha, Pleurobrancomorpha, Sacoglossa, Nudibranchia) del litorale Salentino (Mar Jonio). Thalassia Salentina 12–13:118–144Google Scholar
  94. Piazzi L, Balata D (2009) Invasions of alien macroalgae in different Mediterranean habitats. Biol Invasions 11(2):193–204. doi: 10.1007/s10530-008-9224-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Piazzi L, Ceccherelli G (2006) Persistence of biological invasion effects: recovery of macroalgal assemblages after removal of Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea. Estuar Coast Shelf S 68:455–461. doi:  10.1016/j.ecss.2006.02.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Piazzi L, Balata D, Cecchi E, Cinelli F (2003) Co-occurrence of Caulerpa taxifolia and C. racemosa in the Mediterranean Sea: interspecific interactions and influence on native macroalgal assemblages. Cryptogamie Algol 24:233–243Google Scholar
  97. Piazzi L, Balata D, Ceccherelli G, Cinelli F (2005) Interactive effect of sedimentation and Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea invasion on macroalgal assemblages in the Mediterranean Sea. Estuar Coast Shelf S 64:467–474. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2005.03.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Piazzi L, Balata D, Cinelli F (2007) Invasions of alien macroalgae in Mediterranean coralligenous assemblages. Cryptogamie Algol 28:289–301Google Scholar
  99. Pinardi N, Masetti E (2000) Variability of the large scale general circulation of the Mediterranean Sea from observations and modeling: a review. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 158:153–174. doi: 10.1016/S0031-0182(00)00048-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Puce S, Bavestrello G, Di Camillo CG, Boero F (2009) Long-term changes in hydroid (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) assemblages: effect of Mediterranean warming? Mar Ecol 30:313–326. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0485.2009.00283.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pyšek P, Hulme PE, Nentwig W (2009) Glossary of the main technical terms used in the handbook. DAISIE, The handbook of Alien Species in Europe. Springer, Berlin, pp 375–381Google Scholar
  102. Quignard JP, Tomasini JA (2000) Mediterranean fish biodiversity. Biol Mar Medit 7(3):1–66Google Scholar
  103. Quoy JRC, Gaimard P (1824) Zoologie. Poissons: 183–401, pl 43–65. In: de Freycinet L. Voyage autour du monde…exécuté sur les corvettes de S.M. l’Uranie et la Physicienne, pendant les années 1817, 1818, 1819 et 1820. Paris, 712 p, 96 plGoogle Scholar
  104. Raniello R, Lorenti M, Brunet C, Buia MC (2006) Photoacclimation of the invasive alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea to depth and daylight patterns and a putative new role for siphonaxanthin. Mar Ecol 27:20–30. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0485.2006.00080.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Raniello R, Mollo E, Lorenti M, Gavagnin M, Buia MC (2007) Phytotoxic activity of caulerpenyne from the Mediterranean invasive variety of Caulerpa racemosa: a potential allelochemical. Biol Invasions 9:361–368. doi: 10.1007/s10530-006-9044-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Reise K, Olenin S, Thieltges DW (2006) Are aliens threatening European aquatic coastal ecosystems? Helgoland Mar Res 60:106–112. doi: 10.1007/s10152-006-0024-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Relini G (ed) (2008) Checklist della Flora e della Fauna marina dei Mari Italiani. Parte I. Biol Mar Medit 15(Suppl 1):III–XIGoogle Scholar
  108. Ribera Siguan MA (2002) Review of non-native plants in the Mediterranean Sea. In: Leppakoski E, Gollash S, Olenin S (eds) Invasive aquatic species of Europe. Distribution, impacts and management. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 291–310Google Scholar
  109. Ruiz GM, Carlton JT, Grosholtz ED, Hines AH (1997) Global invasions of marine and estuarine habitats by non-indigenous species: mechanisms, extent and consequences. Am Zool 37:621–632. doi: 10.1093/icb/37.6.621 Google Scholar
  110. Ruiz GM, Fofonoff PW, Carlton JT, Wonham MJ, Hines AH (2000) Invasion of coastal marine communities in north America: apparent patterns, processes, and biases. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 31:481–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sacchi CF, Morri C, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A, Sconfietti R (1983) Nouveaux éléments pour la zoogéographie lagunaire de l’Adriatique du Nord. Rapp Comm Int Mer Médit 28(6):225–228Google Scholar
  112. Sacchi CF, Occhipinti Ambrogi A, Sconfietti R (1990) Les lagunes nord-adriatiques: un environnement conservateur ouvert aux nouveautés. B Soc Zool Fr 114(3):47–60Google Scholar
  113. Sacchi CF, Sconfietti R, Occhipinti Ambrogi A (1998) Changes in the benthic communities of hard and soft bottom at the hydrographic boundaries in the Venice Lagoon. Rapp Comm int Mer Médit 35(2):582–583Google Scholar
  114. Savini D, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2006) Consumption rates and prey preference of the invasive alien gastropod Rapana venosa (Gastropoda:Muricidae) in a locality of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Helgoland Mar Res 60:153–159. doi: 10.1007/s10152-006-0029-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Savini D, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A, Marchini A, Tricarico E, Gherardi F, Olenin S, Gollasch S (2010) The top 27 alien animal species intentionally introduced by European aquaculture and related activities: stocking, sport fishery and ornamental purposes. J Appl Ichthyol (in press)Google Scholar
  116. Scalici M, Chiesa S, Scuderi S, Celauro D, Gibertini G (2010) Population structure and dynamics of Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) in a Mediterranean brackish wetland (Central Italy). Biol Invasions 12:1415–1425. doi: 10.1007/s10530-009-9557-6 Google Scholar
  117. Sconfietti R, Marchini A, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A, Sacchi CF (2003) The sessile benthic community patterns on hard bottoms in response to continental vs marine influence in Northern Adriatic lagoons. Oceanol Acta 26:47–56. doi: 10.1016/S0399-1784(02)01228-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Scordella G, Lumare F, Conides A, Papaconstantinou C (2003) First occurrence of the Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Lesina Lagoon (Eastern Italian coast). Medit Mar Sci 4(1):1–4Google Scholar
  119. Sfriso A, Curiel D (2007) Check-list of seaweeds recorded in the last 20 years in Venice lagoon, and a comparison with the previous records. Bot Mar 50:22–58. doi: 10.1515/BOT.2007.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sfriso A, Marcomini A, Pavoni B, Orio AA (1993) Species composition, biomass and net primary production in coastal shallow waters: the Venice lagoon. Bioresour Technol 44:235–250. doi: 10.1016/0960-8524(93)90158-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sfriso A, Facca C, Ghetti PF (2003) Temporal and spatial changes of macroalgae and phytoplankton in a Mediterranean coastal area: the Venice lagoon as a case study. Mar Environ Res 56:617–636. doi: 10.1016/S0141-1136(03)00046-1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Shiganova TA, Mirzoyan ZA, Studenikina EA, Volovik SP, Siokou-Frangou I, Zervoudaki S, Christou ED, Skirta AY, Dumont HJ (2001) Population development of the invader ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, in the Black Sea and in other seas of the Mediterranean basin. Mar Biol 139:431–445. doi: 10.1007/s002270100554 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Streftaris N, Zenetos A, Papathanassiou E (2005) Globalisation in marine ecosystems: the story of non-indigenous marine species across European seas. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 43:419–453Google Scholar
  124. Taviani M (2002) The Mediterranean benthos from late Miocene up to present: ten million years of dramatic climatic and geologic vicissitudes. Biol Mar Medit 9(1):445–463Google Scholar
  125. Terlizzi A, Scuderi A, Fraschetti S, Guidetti P, Boero F (2003) Molluscs on subtidal cliffs: patterns of spatial distribution. J Mar Biol Ass UK 83:165–172. doi: 10.1017/S0025315403006933h Google Scholar
  126. Terranova MS, Lo Brutto S, Arculeo M, Mitton JB (2006) Population structure of Brachidontes pharaonis (P. Fischer, 1870) (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) in the Mediterranean Sea, and evolution of a novel mtDNA polymorphism. Mar Biol 150:89–101. doi: 10.1007/s00227-006-0330-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tisselli M, Bazzocchi P, Fuzzi G, Giunchi L (2005) Turisti…Indopacifici a Riccione. Notiziario SIM 23:24–25Google Scholar
  128. Tortorici R, Panetta P (1977) Notizie ecologiche su alcuni opistobranchi raccolti nel Golfo di Taranto (Gastropoda). Atti Soc Ital Sci Nat Mus Civ Stor Nat Milano 118:249–257Google Scholar
  129. Tunin-Ley A, Ibañez F, Labat J-P, Zingone A, Lemée R (2009) Phytoplankton biodiversity and NW Mediterranean Sea warming: changes in the dinoflagellate genus Ceratium in the 20th century. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 375:85–99. doi: 10.3354/meps07730 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Vacchi M, Psomadakis PN, Repetto N, Würtz M (2010) First record of the dog snapper Lutjanus jocu in the Mediterranean Sea. J Fish Biol 76:723–728. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2009.02505.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Verlaque M (2001) Checklist of the macroalgae of Thau Lagoon (Hérault, France), a hot spot of marine species introduction in Europe. Oceanol Acta 24:29–49. doi: 10.1016/S0399-1784(00)01127-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Verlaque M, Durand C, Huisman JM, Boudouresque C-F, Le Parco Y (2003) On the identity and origin of the Mediterranean invasive Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta). Eur J Phycol 38:325–339. doi: 10.1080/09670260310001612592 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Verlaque M, Boudouresque C-F, Mineur F (2007) Oyster transfer as a vector for marine species introductions: a realistic approach based on the macrophytes. CIESM Workshop Monographs n°32, Impact of mariculture on coastal ecosystems. CIESM, Monaco, pp 39–47. Accessed 15 December 2009
  134. Verlaque M, Ruitton S, Mineur F, Boudouresque CF (2010) CIESM Atlas of exotic species in the Mediterranean—vol 4 Macrophytes. CIESM, MonacoGoogle Scholar
  135. Verling E, Ruiz GM, Smith LD, Galil B, Miller AW, Murphy KR (2005) Supply-side invasion ecology: characterizing propagule pressure in coastal ecosystems. Proc R Soc Lond B 272:1249–1257. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2005.3090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Yokes B, Galil BS (2006) Touchdown -first record of Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Grapsidae) from the Levantine coast. Aquat Invasions 1(3):130–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Zagami G, Costanzo G, Crescenti N (2005) First record in Mediterranean Sea and redescription of the bentho-planktonic calanoid copepod species Pseudocyclops xiphophorus Wells, 1967. J Mar Syst 55:67–76. doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2004.07.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Zenetos A (2010) Trend in aliens species in the Mediterranean. An answer to Galil, 2009 « Taking stock: inventory of alien species in the Mediterranean Sea » . Biol Invasions (in press). doi: 10.1007/s10530-009-9679-x
  139. Zenetos A, Gofas S, Russo GF, Templado J (2002) CIESM Atlas of exotic species in the Mediterranean—vol 3 Molluscs. CIESM, MonacoGoogle Scholar
  140. Zenetos A, Çinar ME, Pancucci-Papadopoulou MA, Harmelin JC, Furnari G, Andaloro F, Bellou N, Streftaris N, Zibrowius H (2005) Annotated list of marine alien species in the Mediterranean with records of the worst invasive species. Medit Mar Sci 6(2):63–118Google Scholar
  141. Zenetos A, Meric E, Verlaque M, Galli P, Boudouresque CF, Giangrande A, Cinar ME, Bilecenoglou M (2008) Additions to the annotated list of marine alien biota in the Mediterranean with special emphasis on Foraminifera and Parasites. Medit Mar Sci 9(1):119–165Google Scholar
  142. Zibrowius H (1992) Ongoing modification of the Mediterranean marine fauna and flora by the establishment of exotic species. Mésogée 51:83–107Google Scholar
  143. Zibrowius H (2001) Report of CIESM Round-table session on recent changes in Mediterranean biota—trends emerging from the CIESM Atlas. In: 36th CIESM Congress, Monte Carlo, 25 September 2001Google Scholar
  144. Zolotarev V (1996) The Black Sea ecosystem changes related to the introduction of new mollusc species. Mar Ecol 17:227–236. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0485.1996.tb00504.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Agnese Marchini
    • 1
  • Grazia Cantone
    • 2
  • Alberto Castelli
    • 3
  • Carla Chimenz
    • 4
  • Mario Cormaci
    • 5
  • Carlo Froglia
    • 6
  • Giovanni Furnari
    • 5
  • Maria Cristina Gambi
    • 7
  • Giuseppe Giaccone
    • 5
  • Adriana Giangrande
    • 8
  • Cinzia Gravili
    • 8
  • Francesco Mastrototaro
    • 9
  • Cristina Mazziotti
    • 10
  • Lidia Orsi-Relini
    • 11
  • Stefano Piraino
    • 8
  1. 1.DET-Dipartimento di Ecologia del TerritorioUniversity of PaviaPaviaItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Biologia Animale “M. La Greca”University of CataniaCataniaItaly
  3. 3.Dipartimento di BiologiaUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  4. 4.Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell’UomoUniversity “La Sapienza” of RomaRomeItaly
  5. 5.Dipartimento di BotanicaUniversity of CataniaCataniaItaly
  6. 6.CNR-ISMAR, Sede Ancona, Largo Fiera della PescaAnconaItaly
  7. 7.Stazione Zoologica “Anton Dohrn”, Benthic Ecology Group, Villa Dohrn, Punta S. PietroIschia, NapoliItaly
  8. 8.CONISMA-Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze del Mare (ULR Lecce), DiSTeBA-Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed AmbientaliUniversity of SalentoLecceItaly
  9. 9.Dipartimento di Biologia Animale ed AmbientaleUniversity of BariBariItaly
  10. 10.ARPA Emilia-Romagna, Struttura Oceanografica DaphneCesenaticoItaly
  11. 11.DipTeRis-Dipartimento per lo studio del Territorio e delle sue RisorseUniversity of GenoaGenoaItaly

Personalised recommendations