Biological Invasions

, Volume 12, Issue 9, pp 3277–3288 | Cite as

Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Bermuda: extinction, invasion, invasion and extinction

  • Laran Kaplan
  • David Kendell
  • Deborah Robertson
  • Todd Livdahl
  • Camilo Khatchikian
Original Paper


We provide an analysis of the invasion and spread of the container inhabiting mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the Bermuda Islands. Considered eradicated in the mid-1960s, A. aegypti was redetected in 1997, and A. albopictus was first detected in 2000. Based on weekly ovitrap data collected during the early stages of the invasion, we mapped the spread of Aedes throughout the islands. We analyzed the effects of buildings and roads on mosquito density and found a significant association between density and distance to roads, but not to buildings. We discuss the potential role of human transport in the rapid spread in the islands. The temporal correlation in ovitrap collection values decreased progressively, suggesting that habitat degradation due to control efforts were responsible for local shifts in mosquito densities. We report a sharp decrease in A. aegypti presence and abundance after the arrival of A. albopictus in the year 2000. Possible mechanisms for this rapid decline at relatively low density of the second invader are discussed in the context of classical competition theory and earlier experimental results from Florida, as well as alternative explanations. We suggest that support for the competition hypothesis to account for the decline of A. aegypti is ambiguous and likely to be an incomplete explanation.


Aedes albopictus Aedes aegypti Vector invasion Bermuda Islands Competition 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laran Kaplan
    • 1
    • 3
  • David Kendell
    • 2
  • Deborah Robertson
    • 1
  • Todd Livdahl
    • 1
  • Camilo Khatchikian
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyClark UniversityWorcesterUSA
  2. 2.Bermuda Ministry of HealthBermudaUK
  3. 3.Center for Vector BiologyRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

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