Biological Invasions

, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 1253–1267 | Cite as

Biological consequences of invasion by reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea)

  • Greg SpyreasEmail author
  • Brian W. Wilm
  • Allen E. Plocher
  • David M. Ketzner
  • Jeffrey W. Matthews
  • James L. Ellis
  • Edward J. Heske
Original Paper


Although they are typically assumed to be negative, the consequences of plant invasions for native diversity or biological integrity are seldom broadly quantified (i.e., for multiple taxa or across large regions). We investigated the impacts associated with invasion of wetlands by reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.; RCG) on plants and several animal groups. In a local study, we compared plants, arthropods, and small mammals on treatment plots with reduced RCG dominance to those on highly invaded plots. We also conducted a companion study, where we measured RCG dominance and plants, arthropods, and birds in 82 randomly selected wetlands across Illinois (USA) to determine if our experimental results were consistent in communities across the region. Plant diversity, floristic quality, and diversity and abundance of Homopteran insects decreased with RCG dominance in all instances. Richness and abundance of all other arthropods decreased with increasing RCG in the local study, but no trend was detected in communities statewide. No relationship between total abundance or richness of small mammals (local) or birds (statewide) with RCG was detected. However, voles and shrews were more abundant, and mice less abundant, in RCG-dominated plots. These results support the hypothesis that there are negative effects for multiple taxa from RCG invasion. Because negative effects observed in the local study either corroborated, or were neutral with respect to results from statewide surveys, they suggest that native biodiversity and biological integrity are being dampened across wide areas of this invader’s range.


Biodiversity Biotic homogenization Multi-trophic effects Cryptic invader Floristic quality assessment Non-native species 



Thanks to Sue Gallo, Diane Szafoni, and Chris Dietrich for technical assistance; the Illinois Department of Transportation, the critical trends assessment program, and the Illinois Department of Natural Resources—Illinois Wildlife Preservation Fund Grant for financial support. Thanks to Eileen M. Kirsch for access to previously unpublished data, and to Lauren Persha and Chris Whelan and anonymous reviewers for comments on earlier versions of the manuscript.


  1. Abrams M, Hulbert L (1987) Effect of topographic position and fire on species composition in a tallgrass prairie in northeast Kansas. Am Midl Nat 117:442–445Google Scholar
  2. Adair RJ, Groves RH (1998) Impact of environmental weeds on biodiversity: a review and development of a methodology. National Weeds Program, The Director of the National Parks and Wildlife Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia, Canberra, ACTGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvarez M, Cushman J (2002) Community-level consequences of a plant invasion: effects on three habitats in coastal California. Ecol Appl 12:1434–1444Google Scholar
  4. Anderson MG (1995) Interactions between Lythrum salicaria and native organisms: a critical review. Environ Manage 19:225–231Google Scholar
  5. Angermeier PL, Karr JR (1994) Biological integrity versus biological diversity as policy directives: protecting biotic resources. Bioscience 44:690–697Google Scholar
  6. Annen CA, Kirsch EM, Tyser RW (2008) Reed canarygrass invasions alter succession patterns and may reduce habitat quality in wet meadows. Ecol Restor 26:190–193Google Scholar
  7. Aronson MFJ, Galatowitsch S (2008) Long-term vegetation development of restored prairie pothole wetlands. Wetlands 28:883–895Google Scholar
  8. Barnes WJ (1999) The rapid growth of a population of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) and its impact on some riverbottom herbs. J Torrey Bot Soc 126:133–138Google Scholar
  9. Batzli GO (1977) Population dynamics of the white-footed mouse in floodplain and upland forests. Am Midl Nat 97:18–32Google Scholar
  10. Beaulieu F, Wheeler TA (2002) Insects (Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera) reared from wetland monocots (Cyperaceae, Poaceae, Typhaceae) in southern Quebec. Proc Entomol Soc Wash 104:300–308Google Scholar
  11. Benoit LK, Askins RA (1999) Impact of the spread of phragmites on the distribution of birds in Connecticut tidal marshes. Wetlands 19:194–208Google Scholar
  12. Bernthal T, Willis K (2004) Using landsat 7 imagery to map invasive reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea): a landscape level wetland monitoring methodology. Final Report to US EPA, Region V, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  13. Biedermann R, Achtziger R, Nickel H, Stewart AJA (2005) Conservation of grassland leafhoppers: a brief review. J Insect Conserv 9:229–243Google Scholar
  14. Blossey B (1999) Before, during and after: the need for long-term monitoring in invasive plant species management. Biol Invasions 1:301–311Google Scholar
  15. Bock CE, Jones ZF (2004) Avian habitat evaluation: should counting birds count? Frontiers Ecol Environ 2:403–410Google Scholar
  16. Bradley BA, Mustard JF (2006) Characterizing the landscape dynamics of an invasive plant and risk of invasion using remote sensing. Ecol Appl 16:1132–1147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Braithwaite RW, Lonsdale WM, Estbergs JA (1989) Alien vegetation and native biota in tropical Australia: the impact of Mimosa pigra. Biol Conserv 48:189–210Google Scholar
  18. Brandon AL, Gibson DJ, Middleton BA (2004) Mechanisms for dominance in an early successional old field by the invasive non-native Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don. Biol Invasions 6:483–493Google Scholar
  19. Brodersen C, Lavergne S, Molofsky J (2008) Genetic variation in photosynthetic characteristics among invasive and native populations of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea). Biol Invasions 10:1317–1325Google Scholar
  20. Buffington ML, Redak RA (1998) A comparison of vacuum sampling versus sweep-netting for arthropod biodiversity measurements in California coastal sage scrub. J Insect Conserv 2:99–106Google Scholar
  21. Bush L, Roberts CA, Schultz C (2007) Plant chemistry and antiquality components in forage. In: Barnes RF, Nelson CJ, Moore KJ, Collins M (eds) Forages: the science of grassland agriculture. Blackwell, Ames, pp 509–528Google Scholar
  22. Byers J, Reichard SH, Randall JM, Parker IM, Smith CS, Lonsdale W, Atkinson IAE, Seastedt TR, Williamson M, Chornesky E, Hayes D (2002) Directing research to reduce the impacts of nonindigenous species. Conserv Biol 16:630–640Google Scholar
  23. Carroll C, Dassler C, Ellis J, Spyreas G, Taft JB, Robertson K (2002) Plant sampling protocols. In: Molano-Flores B (ed) Critical trends assessment program monitoring protocols. Illinois Natural History Survey, Office of the Chief Technical Report 2002-2, Champaign, IL, 38ppGoogle Scholar
  24. Cole FR (1977) Nutrition and population dynamics of the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, in central Illinois. PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana, ILGoogle Scholar
  25. Cottingham KL, Lennon JT, Brown BL (2005) Knowing when to draw the line: designing more informative ecological experiments. Frontiers Ecol Environ 3:145–152Google Scholar
  26. Crooks JA (2002) Characterizing ecosystem-level consequences of biological invasions: the role of ecosystem engineers. Oikos 97:153–166Google Scholar
  27. De Groot M, Kleijn D, Jogan N (2007) Species groups occupying different trophic levels respond differently to the invasion of semi-natural vegetation by Solidago canadensis. Biol Conserv 136:612–617Google Scholar
  28. DeLong DM (1948) The leafhoppers, or Cicadellidae, of Illinois (Eurymelinae-Balcluthinae). Bull Ill Nat Hist Surv 24:97–376Google Scholar
  29. Drucker HR, Brown CS, Stohlgren TJ (2008) Developing regional invasive species watch lists: Colorado as a case study. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 1:390–398Google Scholar
  30. Ernst CM, Cappuccino N (2005) The effect of an invasive alien vine, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Asclepidaceae), on arthropod populations in Ontario old fields. Biol Invasions 7:417–425Google Scholar
  31. Evans EW, Rogers RA, Opfermann DJ (1983) Sampling grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) on burned and unburned tallgrass prairie: night trapping vs. sweeping. Environ Entomol 12:1449–1454Google Scholar
  32. Fleishman E, McDonal N, MacNally R, Murphy DD, Walters J, Floyd T (2003) Effects of floristics, physiognomy, and non-native vegetation on riparian bird communities in a Mojave Desert watershed. J Anim Ecol 72:484–490Google Scholar
  33. Fordham RA (1971) Field populations of deermice with supplemental food. Ecology 52:138–146Google Scholar
  34. Fortier GM, Bard N, Jansen M, Clay K (2000) Effects of tall fescue endophyte infection and population density on growth and reproduction in prairie voles. J Wildl Manag 64:122–128Google Scholar
  35. Fridley JD, Stachowicz JJ, Naeem S, Sax DF, Seabloom EW, Smith MD, Stohlgren TJ, Tilman D, Holle BV (2007) The invasion paradox: reconciling pattern and process in species invasions. Ecology 88:3–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gaston KJ, Fuller RA (2007) Commonness, population depletion and conservation biology. Trends Ecol Evol 23:14–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gauthier G, Bedard J (1991) Experimental tests of the palatability of forage plants in greater snow geese. J Appl Ecol 28:491–500Google Scholar
  38. Gerber E, Krebs C, Murrell C, Moretti M, Rocklin R, Schaffner U (2008) Exotic invasive knotweeds (Fallopia spp.) negatively affect native plant and invertebrate assemblages in European riparian habitats. Biol Conserv 141:646–654Google Scholar
  39. Gratton C, Denno RF (2005) Restoration of arthropod assemblages in a Spartina salt marsh following removal of the invasive plant Phragmites australis. Restor Ecol 13:358–372Google Scholar
  40. Gratton C, Denno RF (2006) Arthropod food web restoration following removal of an invasive wetland plant. Ecol Appl 16:622–631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Green EK, Galatowitsch SM (2002) Effects of Phalaris arundinacea and nitrate-N addition on the establishment of wetland plant communities. J Appl Ecol 39:134–144Google Scholar
  42. Gruchy MAD, Reader RJ, Larson DW (2005) Biomass, productivity, and dominance of alien plants: a multihabitat study in a national park. Ecology 86:1259–1266Google Scholar
  43. Haddad NM, Tilman D, Haarstad J, Ritchie M, Knops JMH (2001) Contrasting effects of plant richness and composition on insect communities: a field experiment. Am Nat 158:17–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hamilton KGA (2005) Bugs reveal and extensive, long-lost northern tallgrass prairie. Bioscience 55:49–59Google Scholar
  45. Hansen JD, Castelle AJ (1999) Insect diversity in soils of tidal and non-tidal wetlands of Spencer Island, Washington. J Kans Entomol Soc 72:262–272Google Scholar
  46. Harris RJ, Toft RJ, Dugdale JS, Williams PA, Rees JS (2004) Insect assemblages in a native (kanuka—Kunzea ericoides) and an invasive (gorse—Ulex europaeus) shrubland. N Z J Ecol 28:35–47Google Scholar
  47. Haynes KJ, Dillemuth FP, Anderson BJ, Hakes AS, Jackson HB, Jackson SE, Cronin JT (2007) Landscape context outweighs local habitat quality in its effects on herbivore dispersal and distribution. Oecologia 151:431–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hejda M, Pysek P (2006) What is the impact of Impatiens glandulifera on species diversity of invaded riparian vegetation? Biol Conserv 132:143–152Google Scholar
  49. Hejda M, Pysek P, Jarosik V (2009) Impact of invasive plants on the species richness, diversity and composition of invaded communities. J Ecol 97:393–403Google Scholar
  50. Heleno RH, Ceia RS, Ramos JA, Memmott J (2008) Effects of alien plants on insect abundance and biomass: a food-web approach. Conserv Biol 23:410–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Herkert JR, Simpson SA, Esker TL, Westmeier RL, Walk JW (1999) Response of northern harriers and short-eared owls to grassland management in Illinois. J Wildl Manag 63:517–523Google Scholar
  52. Herrera AM, Dudley TL (2003) Reduction of riparian arthropod abundance and diversity as a consequence of giant reed (Arundo donax) invasion. Biol Invasions 5:167–177Google Scholar
  53. Hoffmeister DF (1989) Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, UrbanaGoogle Scholar
  54. Houlahan JE, Findlay CS (2004) Effect of invasive plant species on temperate wetland plant diversity. Conserv Biol 18:1132–1138Google Scholar
  55. Howe H (2002) Vole herbivory shapes vegetation in experimental tallgrass prairie restorations (Illinois and Wisconsin). Ecol Restor 20:278–279Google Scholar
  56. Hulme PE, Bremner ET (2006) Assessing the impact of Impatiens glandulifera on riparian habitats: partitioning diversity components following species removal. J Ecol 43:43–50Google Scholar
  57. Kean RM, Crawley MJ (2002) Exotic plants and the enemy release hypothesis. Trends Ecol Evol 17:164–170Google Scholar
  58. Kercher S, Zedler JB (2004) Multiple disturbances accelerates invasion of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) in mesocosm study. Oecologia 138:455–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kercher SM, Herr-Turoff A, Zedler JB (2007) Understanding invasion as a process: the case of Phalaris arundinacea in wet prairies. Biol Invasions 9:657–665Google Scholar
  60. Kirsch EM, Gray BR, Fox TJ, Thogmartin WE (2007) Breeding bird territory placement in riparian wet meadows in relation to invasive reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea. Wetlands 27:644–655Google Scholar
  61. Knops JMH, Tilman D, Haddad NM, Naeem S, Mitchell CE, Haarstad J, Ritchie M, Howe K, Reich PB, Siemann E, Groth J (1999) Effects of plant species richness on invasion dynamics, disease outbreaks, insect abundances, and diversity. Ecol Lett 2:286–293Google Scholar
  62. Korpimaki E, Krebs CJ (1996) Predation and population cycles of small mammals. A reassessment of the predation hypothesis. Bioscience 46:754–764Google Scholar
  63. Korpimaki E, Norrdahl K (1991) Numerical and functional responses of Kestrels. Short-eared Owls and Long-eared Owls to vole densities. Ecology 72:814–826Google Scholar
  64. Lavergne S, Molofsky J (2004) Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) as a biological model in the study of plant invasions. Crit Rev Plant Sci 23:415–429Google Scholar
  65. Lavergne S, Molofsky J (2007) Increased genetic variation and evolutionary potential drive the success of an invasive grass. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:3883–3888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lavoie C, Jean M, Delisle M, Letourneau G (2003) Exotic plant species of the St. Lawrence River wetlands: a spatial and historical analysis. J Biogeogr 30:537–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Levine JM, Vila M, D’Antonio CM, Dukes JS, Grigulis K, Lavorel S (2003) Mechanisms underlying the impacts of exotic plant invasions. Proc R Soc Lond 270:775–781Google Scholar
  68. Lindroth RL, Batzli GO (1984a) Food habits of the meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) in bluegrass and prairie habitats. J Mammal 65:600–606Google Scholar
  69. Lindroth RL, Batzli GO (1984b) Plant phenolics as chemical defenses: the effects of natural phenolics on survival and growth of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). J Chem Ecol 10:229–244Google Scholar
  70. Lindsay EA, French K (2006) The impact of the weed Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata on coastal leaf litter invertebrates. Biol Invasions 8:177–192Google Scholar
  71. Lundholm JT, Larson DW (2004) Dominance as an overlooked measure of invader success. Biol Invasions 6:505–510Google Scholar
  72. Marten GC, Jordan RM, Hovin AW (1976) Biological significance of reed canarygrass alkaloids and associated palatability variation to grazing sheep and cattle. Agron J 68:909–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Martin TE (1987) Food as a limit on breeding birds: a life-history perspective. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 18:453–487Google Scholar
  74. Martinko EA, Hagen RH, Griffith JA (2006) Successional change in the insect community of a fragmented landscape. Landscape Ecol 21:711–721Google Scholar
  75. Maskell LC, Firbank LG, Thompson K, Bullock JM, Smart SM (2006) Interactions between non-native plant species and the floristic composition of common habitats. J Ecol 94:1052–1060Google Scholar
  76. Matthews JW, Endress AG (2008) Performance criteria, compliance success and vegetation development in compensatory mitigation wetlands. Environ Manage 41:130–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Meier MS (2004) Effects of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) on terrestrial arthropod biomass, abundance, and diversity in upper midwestern riparian wet meadows. MSc, Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, Wisconsin, pp 1–44Google Scholar
  78. Mulhouse JM, Galatowitsch SM (2003) Revegetation of prairie pothole wetlands in the mid-continental US: twelve years post-reflooding. Plant Ecol 169:143–159Google Scholar
  79. Murdoch WW, Evans FC, Peterson CH (1972) Diversity and pattern in plants and insects. Ecology 53:819–829Google Scholar
  80. Oliver I, Beattie AJ (1996) Invertebrate morphospecies as surrogates for species: a case study. Conserv Biol 10:99–109Google Scholar
  81. Ortega Y, McKelvey KS (2006) Invasion of an exotic forb impacts reproductive success and site fidelity of a migratory songbird. Oecologia 149:340–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Ortega Y, Pearson D (2005) Weak vs. strong invaders of natural plant communities: assessing invasibility and impact. Ecol Appl 15:651–661Google Scholar
  83. Ostfeld RS, Jones CG, Wolff JO (1996) Of mice and mast: ecological connections in eastern deciduous forests. Bioscience 46:323–330Google Scholar
  84. Paine CR (1997) Abundance and nesting productivity of wetland-dependent birds in northeastern Illinois. Final Project Report to the US Fish & Wildlife Service, p 78Google Scholar
  85. Panzer R, Schwartz MW (1998) Effectiveness of a vegetation-based approach to insect conservation. Conserv Biol 12:693–702Google Scholar
  86. Parker IM, Simberloff D, Lonsdale W, Goodell K, Wonham M, Kareiva K, Williamson M, Holle BV, Moyle P, Byers J, Goldwasser L (1999) Impact: toward a framework for understanding the ecological effects of invaders. Biol Invasions 1:3–19Google Scholar
  87. Pauchard A, Shea K (2006) Integrating the study of non-native plant invasions across spatial scales. Biol Invasions 8:399–413Google Scholar
  88. Pearson D (2009) Invasive plant architecture alters trophic interactions by changing predator abundance and behavior. Oecologia 159:549–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Pearson DE, McKelvey KS, Ruggiero LF (2000) Non-target effects of an introduced biological control agent on deer mouse ecology. Oecologia 122:121–128Google Scholar
  90. Perkins TE, Wilson MV (2005) The impacts of Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) invasion on wetland plant richness in the Oregon Coast Range, USA depends on beavers. Biol Conserv 124:291–295Google Scholar
  91. Ramakrishnan PS, Vitousek PM (1989) Ecosystem-level consequences of biological invasions. In: Drake J, di-Castri F, Groves R, Kruger F, Mooney HA, Rejmanek M, Williamson M (eds) Biological invasions: a global perspective. Wiley, New York, pp 281–300Google Scholar
  92. Randall JM, Morse LE, Benton N, Hiebert R, Lu S, Killeffer T (2008) The invasive species assessment protocol: a tool for creating regional and national lists of invasive nonnative plants that negatively impact biodiversity. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 1:36–49Google Scholar
  93. Rangel TFLVB, Diniz-Filho JAF, Bini LM (2006) Towards an integrated computational tool for spatial analysis in macroecology and biogeography. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 15:321–327Google Scholar
  94. Reinhart KO, Greene E, Callaway RM (2005) Effects of Acer platanoides invasion on understory plant communities and tree regeneration in the northern Rocky Mountains. Ecography 28:573–582Google Scholar
  95. Ricciardi A, Neves RJ, Rasmussen JB (1998) Impending extinctions of North American freshwater mussels (Unionoida) following the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. J Anim Ecol 67:613–619Google Scholar
  96. Robel R, Briggs J, Dayton A, Hulbert LC (1970) Relationship between visual obstruction measurement and weight of grassland vegetation. J Range Manag 29:5–98Google Scholar
  97. Rotenberry J, Wiens J (1980) Habitat structure, patches, and avian communities in North American steppe vegetation. Ecology 61:1228–1250Google Scholar
  98. Sax DF, Kinlan BP, Smith KF (2005) A conceptual framework for comparing species assemblages in native and exotic habitats. Oikos 108:457–464Google Scholar
  99. Schaffers AP, Raemakers IP, Sykora KV, ter Braak JF (2008) Arthropod assemblages are best predicted by plant species composition. Ecology 89:782–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Schmitz DC, Simberloff D, Hofstetter RH, Haller W, Sutton D (1997) The ecological impact of nonindigenous plants. In: Simberloff D, Schmitz DC, Brown TC (eds) Strangers in paradise: impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Island, Washington, pp 39–62Google Scholar
  101. Schooler SS (2003) Negative effect of purple loosestrife and reed canary grass on the diversity of wetland plant and moth communities. PhD, Oregon State University, 105pp + appendicesGoogle Scholar
  102. Schooler SS, McEvoy PB, Coombs EM (2006) Negative per capita effects of purple loosestrife and reed canary grass on plant diversity of wetland communities. Divers Distrib 12:351–363Google Scholar
  103. Seagle SW, Sturtevant BR (2005) Forest productivity predicts invertebrate biomass and ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus) reproduction in Appalachian landscapes. Ecology 86:1531–1539Google Scholar
  104. Sharma GP, Singh JS, Raghubanshi AS (2005) Plant invasions: emerging trends and future implications. Curr Sci 88:726–734Google Scholar
  105. Simberloff D (1995) Why do introduced species appear to devastate islands more than mainland areas? Pac Sci 49:87–97Google Scholar
  106. Simberloff D (2000) Extinction-proneness of island species-causes and management implications. Raffles Bull Zool 48:1–9Google Scholar
  107. Slater FM, Semere T (2007) Ground flora, small mammal and bird species diversity in miscanthus (Miscanthus X giganteus) and reed canary-grass (Phalaris arundinacea) fields. Biomass Bioenergy 31:20–29Google Scholar
  108. Slobodchikoff CN, Doyen JT (1977) Effects of Ammophila arenaria on sand-dune arthropod communities. Ecology 58:1171–1175Google Scholar
  109. Southwood TRE, Brown VK, Reader PM (1979) The relationships of plant and insect diversities in succession. Biol J Linn Soc Lond 12:327–348Google Scholar
  110. Spyreas G, Matthews JW (2006) Floristic conservation value, nested understory floras, and the development of second-growth forest. Ecol Appl 16:1351–1366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Spyreas G, Ellis J, Carroll C, Molano-Flores B (2004) Non-native plant commonness and dominance in the forests, wetlands, and grasslands of Illinois, USA. Nat Areas J 24:290–299Google Scholar
  112. Standen V (2000) The adequacy of collecting techniques for estimating species richness of grassland invertebrates. J Appl Ecol 37:884–893Google Scholar
  113. Standish RJ (2004) Impact of an invasive clonal herb on epigaeic invertebrates in forest remnants in New Zealand. Biol Conserv 116:49–58Google Scholar
  114. Stohlgren TJ, Barnet DT, Jarnevich CS, Flather C, Kartesz J (2008) The myth of plant species saturation. Ecol Lett 11:1–10Google Scholar
  115. Stoner KJL, Joern A (2004) Landscape vs local habitat scale influences to insect communities from tallgrass prairie remnants. Ecol Appl 14:1306–1320Google Scholar
  116. Taft JB, Wilhelm G, Ladd D, Masters LA (1997) Floristic quality assessment for vegetation in Illinois, a method for assessing vegetation integrity. Erigenia 15:1–24 (appendix)Google Scholar
  117. Tallamy DW (2004) Do alien plants reduce insect biomass? Conserv Biol 18:1689–1692Google Scholar
  118. Tanner CD, Cordell JR, Rubey J, Tear LM (2002) Restoration of freshwater intertidal habitat functions at Spencer Island, Everett, Washington. Restor Ecol 10:564–576Google Scholar
  119. Thomas JA, Roy DB, Preston CD, Greenwood JD, Asher J, Fox R, Clarke RT, Lawton JH (2004) Comparative losses of British butterflies, birds, and plants and the global extinction crisis. Science 303:1879–1881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Truscotta AM, Palmer SC, Soulsby C, Westawaya S, Hulme PE (2008) Consequences of invasion by the alien plant Mimulus guttatus on the species composition and soil properties of riparian plant communities in Scotland. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 10:231–240Google Scholar
  121. Van Horne B (1983) Density as a misleading indicator of habitat quality. J Wildl Manag 43:893–901Google Scholar
  122. Whitt MB, Prince HH Jr, RC R (1999) Avian use of purple loosestrife dominated habitat relative to other vegetation types in a Lake Huron wetland complex. Wilson Bull 111:105–114Google Scholar
  123. Wiens JA, Rotenberry JT (1979) Diet niche relationships among North American grassland and shrubsteppe birds. Oecologia 42:253–292Google Scholar
  124. Wilcove DS, Rothstein D, Dubow J, Phillips A, Losos E (1998) Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States. Bioscience 48:607–615Google Scholar
  125. Wilkie L, Cassis G, Gray M (2007) The effects on terrestrial arthropod communities of invasion of a coastal heath ecosystem by the exotic weed bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata L.). Biol Invasions 9:477–498Google Scholar
  126. Woods KD (1997) Community response to plant invasion. In: Luken JO, Thieret JW (eds) Assessment and management of plant invasions. Springer, New York, pp 56–67Google Scholar
  127. Zuefle ME, Brown WP, Tallamy DW (2008) Effects of non-native plants on the native insect community of Delaware. Biol Invasions 10:1159–1169Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Greg Spyreas
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Brian W. Wilm
    • 1
  • Allen E. Plocher
    • 1
  • David M. Ketzner
    • 1
  • Jeffrey W. Matthews
    • 1
  • James L. Ellis
    • 1
  • Edward J. Heske
    • 1
  1. 1.Illinois Natural History SurveyChampaignUSA
  2. 2.Department of Natural Resources and Environmental SciencesUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations