Biological Invasions

, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 1243–1252 | Cite as

Impacts of the invasive plant Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) on plant communities and ecosystem processes

  • Anna G. Aguilera
  • Peter Alpert
  • Jeffrey S. Dukes
  • Robin Harrington
Original Paper

Abstract

Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed) invades riparian areas and roadsides in New England. This large clonal species drastically alters the appearance of habitats by forming highly productive near-monocultures. To understand how these invasions affect ecosystem processes in New England, we quantified the impacts of F. japonica on species diversity, primary productivity, and nitrogen cycling at five locations in central Massachusetts, USA. In stands of F. japonica and in adjacent uninvaded areas, we recorded the cover of each plant species and measured the aboveground biomass and nitrogen (N) concentrations in plants, along with N retranslocation from F. japonica leaves and several soil characteristics. In addition, we severed rhizomes of peripheral F. japonica shoots to determine if clonal integration contributes to the species’ rapid spread and dominance. Stands of F. japonica had lower species diversity, but greater aboveground biomass and standing N than uninvaded areas. Nitrogen and carbon concentrations in biomass and N mineralization rates in soil did not differ between stands and adjacent areas. Rhizome severing temporarily reduced growth of F. japonica, suggesting that retranslocation of photoassimilates and/or nutrients between shoots via rhizomatal connections may maximize stand level growth rates and facilitate dominance by F. japonica.

Keywords

Fallopia japonica Japanese knotweed Diversity Nitrogen mineralization Clonal growth Invasive species 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Funding was provided by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship and a Northeast Alliance Fellowship to AGA. We would like to thank Jesse Schreier for field assistance. We are also grateful for the constructive and thoughtful advice of the anonymous reviewers

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna G. Aguilera
    • 1
  • Peter Alpert
    • 2
  • Jeffrey S. Dukes
    • 1
    • 3
  • Robin Harrington
    • 4
  1. 1.Biology DepartmentUniversity of MassachusettsBostonUSA
  2. 2.Biology DepartmentUniversity of MassachusettsAmherstUSA
  3. 3.Department of Forestry and Natural ResourcesPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  4. 4.Natural Resources ConservationUniversity of MassachusettsAmherstUSA

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