Biological Invasions

, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 1053–1066

Tree rings detect earthworm invasions and their effects in northern Hardwood forests

  • Evan R. Larson
  • Kurt F. Kipfmueller
  • Cindy M. Hale
  • Lee E. Frelich
  • Peter B. Reich
Original Paper


Invasions of European earthworms into the forests of northern North America are causing dramatic changes in forest floor structure, vegetation communities, biogeochemical cycling, and site hydrology. However, long-term studies on the effects of invasive earthworms are limited because little data exist on the timing and rate of earthworm invasion at specific sites. We successfully used tree rings to identify the timing of earthworm invasions and the effects of earthworm activity on the Acer saccharum overstory of two recently invaded sites in northern Minnesota, thereby establishing a method to date earthworm invasions at other sites. In addition to identifying a tree-ring signature related to earthworm invasion, we found trees growing in invaded conditions were more sensitive to drought than trees growing in earthworm-free conditions. Increased drought sensitivity by A. saccharum has important implications for possible range shifts under climate change scenarios that include increasing drought frequency and severity.


Acer saccharum Climate-tree growth relationship Dendroecology Earthworm invasion European earthworms Northern Minnesota 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evan R. Larson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kurt F. Kipfmueller
    • 1
  • Cindy M. Hale
    • 3
  • Lee E. Frelich
    • 4
  • Peter B. Reich
    • 4
  1. 1.Minnesota Dendroecology Laboratory, Department of GeographyUniversity of Minnesota—Twin CitiesMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Social Sciences/GeographyUniversity of Wisconsin-PlattevillePlattevilleUSA
  3. 3.The Natural Resources Research Institute, Center for Water and the EnvironmentUniversity of Minnesota DuluthDuluthUSA
  4. 4.Department of Forest ResourcesUniversity of Minnesota—Twin CitiesSaint PaulUSA

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