Interaction between the invasive macroalga Lophocladia lallemandii and the bryozoan Reteporella grimaldii at seagrass meadows: density and physiological responses
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Invasive epiphyte Lophocladia lallemandii macroalga induces changes in the erect bryozoan Reteporella grimaldii at shallow Posidonia oceanica meadows at a Mediterranean pristine location. Bryozoan densities at noninvaded seagrass plots (88.32 ± 3.11 colonies m−2) are higher than those at invaded plots (13.39 ± 1.09 colonies m−2) with a fourfold decrease in number of colonies. Activation of enzymatic pathways (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) and increase in lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) [0.80 ± 0.06 nmol/mg prot at Posidonia oceanica plots to 1.08 ± 0.04 nmol/mg prot at L. lallemandii (P < 0.05)] is observed on sessile bryozoans as response to anoxia caused by L. lallemandii. δ13C of bryozoan isotopic composition differed among treatments, covering a broad range (−19.30‰ invaded to −2.84‰ at noninvaded plots), suggesting modification of food sources. Induced shifts of a filter-feeding erect bryozoan by dense algal turfs at invaded seagrasses are demonstrated, highlighting the need to further address interaction across natural communities and alien species invaded systems before further cascade effects are driven.
KeywordsBryozoans Seagrass Lophocladia lallemandii Invasive species ROS Stable isotopes
Oxygen species production