Biological Invasions

, Volume 11, Issue 7, pp 1653–1670 | Cite as

A review on the effects of alien rodents in the Balearic (Western Mediterranean Sea) and Canary Islands (Eastern Atlantic Ocean)

  • A. Traveset
  • M. Nogales
  • J. A. Alcover
  • J. D. Delgado
  • M. López-Darias
  • D. Godoy
  • J. M. Igual
  • P. Bover
Invasive Rodents on Islands

Abstract

Invasions of alien rodents have shown to have devastating effects on insular ecosystems. Here we review the ecological impacts of these species on the biodiversity of the Balearic and the Canary Islands. A total of seven species of introduced rodents (two rats, three mice, one dormouse, and one squirrel) have been recorded (six in the Balearics and four in the Canaries). Some of them can occasionally be important predators of nesting seabirds, contributing to the decline of endangered populations in both archipelagos. Rats are also known to prey upon terrestrial birds, such as the two endemic Canarian pigeons. Furthermore, rats actively consume both vegetative and reproductive tissues of a high number of plants, with potential relevant indirect effects on vegetation by increasing erosion and favoring the establishment of alien plants. In the Balearics, rats and mice are important seed predators of endemic species and of some plants with a restricted distribution. In the Canaries, rats intensively prey upon about half of the fleshy-fruited tree species of the laurel forest, including some endemics. In both archipelagos, alien rodents disrupt native plant–seed dispersal mutualisms, potentially reducing the chances of plant recruitment at the same time that they modify the structure of plant communities. We further suggest that alien rodents played (and play) a key role in the past and present transformation of Balearic and Canarian native ecosystems.

Keywords

Balearic Islands Canary Islands Predation Rodents Western Mediterranean Sea 

References

  1. Alcover JA (1979) Els Mamífers de les Balears. Manuals d’Introducció a la Naturalesa, 3. Editorail Moll, Palma de MallorcaGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcover JA (1980) Small mammal subrecent faunas at Mediterranean islands. 1. Cabrera Island (Mammalia: Rodentia, Lagomorpha). Boll Soc Hist Nat Balears 24:71–84Google Scholar
  3. Alcover JA (1983) Contribució al coneixement dels mamífers de les Balears i Pitiüses. PhD Thesis, University of BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  4. Alcover JA (1989) Les aus fòssils de la cova de ca na Reia. Endins 14–15:95–100Google Scholar
  5. Alcover JA (1993) Els mamífers: un repte de biologia de la conservació. In: Alcover JA, Ballesteros E, Fornós JJ (eds) Història Natural de l’arxipèlag de Cabrera, Monogr., 2. CSIC, Editorial Moll and Societat Història Natural de les Balears, Palma de Mallorca, pp 457–471Google Scholar
  6. Alcover JA, Agustí J (1985) Eliomys (Eivissia) canarreiensis n.sgen., n.sp., nou glírid del Pleistocè de la Cova de Ca Na Reia. Endins 10–11:51–56Google Scholar
  7. Alcover JA, Kahmann H (1980) Reste des Gartenschläfers (Eliomys) aus Höhlen (Cova Xives und Cova des Cuieram) der Insel Ibiza. Säugetier Mitt 28:30–35Google Scholar
  8. Alcover JA, McMinn M, Altaba CR (1994) Eivissa: a Pleistocene oceanic-like island in the Mediterranean. Natl Geogr Res Explor 10:236–238Google Scholar
  9. Alcover JA, Ramis D, Coll J et al (2001) Bases per al coneixement del contacte entre els primers colonitzadors humans i la naturalesa de les Balears. Endins 24:5–57Google Scholar
  10. Allen RB, Lee WG, Rance BD (1994) Regeneration in indigenous forest after eradication of Norway rats, Breaksea Island, New Zealand. New Zeal J Bot 32:429–439Google Scholar
  11. Amengual JF, Aguilar JS (1998) The impact of the black rat Rattus rattus on the reproduction of Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Cabrera National Park, Balearic Islands, Spain. In: Les Amis des Oiseaux, Medmaravis (eds) Ecologie des Oiseaux Marins et Gestion Intégrée du Littoral Méditerranée, IV symposium Méditerranéen des Oiseaux marins, Medmaravis: Arcs Editions-Tunis, Radès, pp 94–121Google Scholar
  12. Amengual JF, Bonnin J, Rodríguez A et al (2000) El Paiño Europeo (Hydrobates pelagicus melitensis) en el Parque Nacional de Cabrera. In: Las aves del Parque Nacional Marítimo Terrestre del Archipiélago de Cabrera (Islas Baleares; España), Pons GX, GOB-Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, pp 71–84Google Scholar
  13. Araujo J, Muñoz-Cobo J, Purroy FJ (1977) Las rapaces y aves marinas del archipiélago de Cabrera. Nat Hisp 12, ICONA, MadridGoogle Scholar
  14. Arévalo JR, Fernández-Palacios JM (2003) Spatial patterns of trees and juveniles in a laurel forest of Tenerife, Canary Islands. Plant Ecol 165:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Arévalo JR, Fernández-Palacios JM, Palmer M (1999) Tree regeneration and predicted future dynamics in a laurel forest (Tenerife, Canary Islands). J Veg Sci 10:861–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Arteaga M, González-Delgado G, Delgado JD et al (2006) Seed vs. seedling spatial patterns in Picconia excelsa (Oleaceae) in the Canarian laurel forest. Flora 201:642–651Google Scholar
  17. Athens JS, Tuggle HD, Ward JV et al (2002) Avifaunal extinctions, vegetation change, and Polynesian impacts in prehistoric Hawai’i. Archaeol Oceania 37:57–78Google Scholar
  18. Atkinson IAE (1985) The spread of commensal species of Rattus to oceanic islands and their effects on island avifaunas. In: Moors PJ (ed) Conservation of island birds, ICBP Technical Publication 3, pp 35–81Google Scholar
  19. Atkinson IEA (2001) Introduced mammals and models for restoration. Biol Conserv 99:81–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bañares A, Barquín E (1982) Árboles y Arbustos de la Laurisilva Gomera (Parque Nacional de Garajonay). Goya, Santa Cruz de TenerifeGoogle Scholar
  21. Barbosa A, Barrientos R, Valera F et al (2006) Different nesting microhabitat selection as response to different predator pools. J Ornithol 147(suppl 1):132–133Google Scholar
  22. Bocherens H, Michaux J, Billiou D et al (2003) Contribution of collagen stable isotope biogeochemistry to the reconstruction of the paleobiology of extinct endemic rodents (Canariomys bravoi) and lizards (Gallotia goliath) in Tenerife (Canary Islands). Isot Environ Health Stud 39:197–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bocherens H, Michaux HJ, Talavera FG et al (2006) Extinction of endemic vertebrates on islands: the case of the giant rat Canariomys bravoi (Mammalia, Rodentia) on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). C R Palevol 5:885–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bourgeouis K, Suehs CM, Vidal E et al (2005) Invasional meltdown potential: facilitation between introduced plants and mammals on French Mediterranean islands. Écoscience 12:248–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bover P, Alcover JA (2008) Extinction of the autochthonous small mammals of Mallorca (Gymnesic Islands, western Mediterranean Sea) and its ecological consequences. J Biogeogr 35:1112–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Boye P, Hutterer R, López-Martínez N et al (1992) A reconstruction of the lava Mouse (Malpaisomys insularis) an extinct rodent of the Canary Islands. Z Säugetier 57:29–38Google Scholar
  27. Brown KP, Moller H, Innes J et al (1998) Identifying predators at nests of small birds in a New Zealand forest. Ibis 140:274–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Campbell DJ (1978) The effects of rats on vegetation. In: Dingwall PR, Atkinson IAE, Hay C (eds) The ecology and control of rodents in New Zealand nature reserves. Department of Lands and Survey, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  29. Campbell DJ, Atkinson IAE (2002) Depression of tree recruitment by the Pacific rat (Rattus exulans Peale) on New Zealand’s northern offshore islands. Biol Conserv 107:19–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Carrascosa MC, López-Martínez N (1988) The house mouse from a prehistoric site in Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain). Bonn Zool Beitr 39:237–256Google Scholar
  31. Cheylan G (1982) Les adaptations écologiques et morphologiques de Rattus rattus à divers environnements insulaires méditerranéens: étude d’un cas d’évolution rapide. Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  32. Cheylan G (1985) La prédation exercée par le rat noir Rattus rattus sur les oiseaux de mer nicheurs dans les îles méditerranéennes. Ann CROP 2:27–29Google Scholar
  33. Cheylan G (1988) Les adaptations écologiques de Rattus rattus à la survie dans les îlots méditerranéens (Provence et Corse). Bull Écol 19:417–426Google Scholar
  34. Courchamp F, Chapuis JL, Pascal M (2003) Mammal invaders on islands: impact, control and control impact. Biol Rev 78:347–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Crusafont-Pairo M, Petter F (1964) Un murine géant fossile des Iles Canaries Canariomys bravoi Gen. nov., sp. nov. (Rongeurs, Muridés). Mammalia 28:607–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cuddihy LW, Stone CP (1990) Alteration of native Hawaiian vegetation: effects of humans, their activities and introductions. University of Hawaii Press, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  37. Cuthbert R, Hilton G (2004) Introduce house mice Mus musculus: a significant predator of threatened and endemic birds on Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean? Biol Conserv 117:483–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. D’Antonio CM (1990) Seed production and dispersal in the nonnative, invasive succulent Carpobrotus edulis (Aizoaceae) in coastal strand communities of Central California. J Appl Ecol 27:693–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Delgado JD (1997) Viburnum tinus, ratas y aves: interacciones entre una planta con frutos carnosos y los vertebrados frugívoros en un bosque de laurisilva de Tenerife (Islas Canarias). Msc thesis Dissertation. Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, SpainGoogle Scholar
  40. Delgado JD (2000) Selection and treatment of fleshy fruits by the ship rat (Rattus rattus L.) in the Canarian laurel forest. Mammalia 64:11–18Google Scholar
  41. Delgado JD (2002) Interaction between introduced rats and a frugivore bird–plant system in a relict island forest. J Nat Hist 36:1247–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Delgado JD, Arévalo JR, Fernández-Palacios JM (2005) Patterns of artificial avian nest predation by introduced rats in a fragmented laurel forest (Tenerife, Canary Islands). J Nat Hist 38:2661–2669Google Scholar
  43. Donlan CJ, Tershy BR, Campbell K et al (2003) Research for requiems: the need for more collaborative action in eradication of invasive species. Conserv Biol 17:1850–1851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fernández-Palacios JM, Arévalo JR (1998) Regeneration strategies of tree species in the laurel forest of Tenerife (the Canary Islands). Plant Ecol 137:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fernández-Palacios JM, Arévalo JR, González-Delgado G et al (2004) Estrategias de regeneración de la laurisilva. Makaronesia 6:90–101Google Scholar
  46. Fraga BM, Terrero D (1996) Alkene-γ-lactones and avocadofurans from Persea indica: a revision of the structure of major enolide and related lactones. Phytochemistry 41:229–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fukami T, Wardle DA, Bellingham PJ et al (2006) Above- and below-ground impacts of introduced predators in seabird-dominated island ecosystems. Ecol Lett 9:1299–1307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Godoy D (2001) Estudio sobre la dinámica de la depredación de semillas en el monteverde de Anaga (Tenerife). Msc Thesis Dissertation. Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, SpainGoogle Scholar
  49. Gómez LA, Fernández AB (2003) Desfoliación y consumo de frutos producidos por la rata (Rattus spp.) en árboles y arbustos de la laurisilva del Parque Nacional de Garajonay (La Gomera, Islas Canaria, España). In: Rodríguez-Luengo JL (ed) Control de Vertebrados Invasores en Islas de España y Portugal. Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación Territorial, Gobierno de Canarias, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, pp 117–124Google Scholar
  50. González-Coloma A, Hernández MG, Perales A et al (1990) Chemical ecology of Canarian laurel forest: toxic diterpenes from Persea indica (Lauraceae). J Chem Ecol 16:2723–2733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. González-Coloma A, Cabrera R, Castañera P et al (1992) Insecticidal activity and diterpene content of Persea indica. Phytochemistry 31:1549–1552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hamilton WJ (1971) Geometry for the selfish herd. J Theor Biol 31:295–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hernández E, Nogales M, Quilis V et al (1990) Nesting of the Manx Shearwater (Puffinus puffinus Brünnich, 1764) on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands). Bonn Zool Beitr 41:59–62Google Scholar
  54. Hernández MA, Martin A, Nogales M (1999) Breeding success and predation on artificial nests of the endemic pigeons Bolle’s laurel pigeon Columba bollii and white-tailed laurel pigeon C. junoniae in the laurel forest of Tenerife (Canary Islands). Ibis 141:52–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Herrera CM (1995) Plant-vertebrate seed dispersal systems in the Mediterranean: ecological, evolutionary, and historical determinants. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 26:705–727Google Scholar
  56. Hobson KA, Drever MC, Kaiser FW (1999) Norway rats as predators of burrow-nesting seabirds: insights from stable isotope analyses. J Wildlife Manage 63:14–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hunt TL (2007) Rethinking Easter Island’s ecological catastrophe. J Archaeol Sci 34:485–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hutterer R, López-Martínez N, Michaux HJ (1988) New rodent from the quaternary deposits of the Canary Islands and its relationships with Neogene and recent Murids of Europe and Africa. Palaeovertebrata 18:241–262Google Scholar
  59. Igual JM, Afán I, Santana C et al (2004) Confirmación de cría de la Pardela Balear Puffinus mauretanicus en el islote de Es Bosc, Parque Natural de Cala d’Hort, Ibiza. Anu Ornit Balears 19:11–13Google Scholar
  60. Igual JM, Forero MG, Gomez T et al (2006) Rat control and breeding performance in Cory’s Shearwaters: effects of poisoning effort and habitat features. Anim Conserv 9:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Igual JM, Forero MG, Gomez T et al (2007) Can an introduced predator trigger an evolutionary trap in a colonial seabird? Biol Conserv 137:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Imber MJ (1978) The effects of rats on breeding success of petrels. In: Dingwall PR, Atkinson IAE, Hay C (eds) The ecology and control of rodents in New Zealand nature reserves. Department of Land and Survey Information Series, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  63. Imber M, Harrison M, Harrison J (2000) Interactions between petrels, rats and rabbits on Whale Island, and effects of rat and rabbit eradication. N Z J Ecol 24:153–160Google Scholar
  64. Innes J, Nugent G, Prime K et al (2004) Responses of kukupa (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae) and other birds to mammal pest control at Motatau, Northland. N Z J Ecol 28:73–81Google Scholar
  65. Jouventin P, Bried J, Micol T (2003) Insular bird populations can be saved from rats: a long-term experimental study of white-chinned petrels Procellaria aequinoctialis on Île de la Possession (Crozet Archipelago). Polar Biol 26:371–378Google Scholar
  66. Kahmann H, Lau G (1972) Der Gartenschläfer Eliomys quercinus ophiusae Thomas, 1925 von der Pityuseninsel Formentera (Lebensführung). Veröffentlichungen der zoologischen Staatssammlung (München) 16:29–49Google Scholar
  67. Kelly D, Robertson AW, Ladley JJ et al (2006) Relative (un)importance of introduced animals as pollinators and disperses of native plants. In: Allen RB, Lee WG (eds) Biological invasions in New Zealand. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 227–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kuhajek JM, Payton IJ, Monks A (2006) The impact of defoliation on the foliar chemistry of southern rätä (Metrosideros umbellata). N Z J Ecol 30:237–249Google Scholar
  69. Lázaro A, Traveset A, Castillo A (2006) Spatial concordance at a regional scale in the regeneration process of a circum-Mediterranean relict (Buxus balearica): connecting seed dispersal to seedling establishment. Ecography 29:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lebreton JD, Clobert J (1991) Bird population dynamics, management, and conservation: the role of mathematical modeling. In: Perrins CM, Lebreton J-D, Hirons GJM (eds) Bird population studies. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 105–125Google Scholar
  71. Lesser S (2003) Die Tierschutzrechtliche Bewertung des Wasserprivation bei Laboratorien während wissenschaftlicher Untersuchungen auf der Grundlage bisheriger physiologischer und ethologischer Erkenntnisse. Dissertation. Inst.Tierschutz und Verhalten der Tierärztlichen Hochschule, HannoverGoogle Scholar
  72. López-Darias M, Lobo JM (2008) Factors affecting invasive species abundance: the barbary ground squirrel on Fuerteventura Island. Zool Studies 46:268–281Google Scholar
  73. López-Darias M, Nogales M (2008) Effects of the invasive barbary ground squirrel (Atlantoxerus getulus) on seed dispersal systems of insular xeric environments. J Arid Environ 72:926–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. López-Darias M, Ribas A, Feliú C (2008) Helminth parasites in native and invasive mammal populations: comparative study on the barbary ground squirrel Atlantoxerus getulus L. (Rodentia, Sciuridae) in Morocco and the Canary Islands. Acta Parasitologica 53:296–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. López-Jurado LF, López-Martínez N (1991) Presencia de la rata gigante extinguida de Gran Canaria (Canariomys tamarani) en una cueva de habitación aborigen. El Museo Canario 48:19–22Google Scholar
  76. López-Jurado C, Jaume J, King J et al (1992) Contribució a l’estudi de les colònies de Virot (Calonectris diomedea) i Noneta (Hydrobates pelagicus) de l’arxipèlag de Cabrera. Anu Ornit Balears 7:29–38Google Scholar
  77. López-Martínez N, López-Jurado LF (1987) Un nuevo múrido gigante del Cuaternario de Gran Canaria, Canariomys tamarani nov. sp. (Rodentia, Mammalia). Doñana Acta Vertebr 2:1–66Google Scholar
  78. López-Martínez N, Michaux J, Hutterer R (1998) The skull of Stephanomys and a review of Malpaisomys relationships (Rodentia: Muridae): taxonomic incongruence in murids. J Mammal Evol 5:185–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Louzao M, Igual JM, Aguilar JS et al (2006) Small pelagic fish, trawling discards and the breeding performance of the critically endangered Balearic Shearwater: improving the conservation diagnosis. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 318:247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Machado A (1979) The introduction of the Getulian Squirrel (Atlantoxerus getulus L., 1758) in Fuerteventura, Canary Islands. Egypt J Wildl Nat Res 2:182–203Google Scholar
  81. Machado A, Domínguez F (1982) Estudio sobre la presencia de la ardilla moruna (Atlantoxerus getulus L., 1758) en la isla de Fuerteventura; su introducción, su biología y su impacto en el medio. ICONA, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (unpublished report)Google Scholar
  82. Martín A, Lorenzo JA (2001) Aves del Archipiélago Canario. Francisco Lemus ed, La LagunaGoogle Scholar
  83. Martín A, Hernández E, Nogales M et al (2002a) El Libro Rojo de los Vertebrados Terrestres de Canarias. Caja Canarias, Santa Cruz de TenerifeGoogle Scholar
  84. Martïn A, Nogales M, Alonso J et al (2002b) Restauración de los Islotes y del Risco de Famara (Lanzarote). Departamento de Biología Animal. Univ. La Laguna, La Laguna (Unpublished Report)Google Scholar
  85. Martin JL, Thibaut JC, Betragnolle V (2000) Black rats, island characteristics, and colonial nesting birds in the Mediterranean: consequences of an ancient introduction. Conserv Biol 14:1452–1466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. McConkey KR, Drake DR (2003) Husking stations provide evidence of seed predation by introduced rodents in Tongan rain forests. Biol Conserv 109:221–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McMinn M, Palmer M, Alcover JA (2005) A new species of rail (Aves: Rallidae) from the Upper Pleistocene and Holocene of Eivissa (Pityusic Islands, western Mediterranean). Ibis 147:706–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Médail F, Quézel P (1999) Biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean Basin: setting global conservation priorities. Conserv Biol 13:1510–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Michaux J, Hutterer R, López-Martínez N (1991) New fossil faunas from Fuerteventura, Canary Islands: evidence for a Pleistocene age of endemic rodents and shrews. CR Acad Sci Paris, Série II 312:801–806Google Scholar
  90. Michaux J, López-Martínez N, Hernández-Pacheco J-J (1996) A 14C dating of Canariomys bravoi (Mammalia Rodentia), the extinct giant rat from Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), and the recent history of the endemic mammals in the archipelago. Vie Milieu 46:261–266Google Scholar
  91. Mitchell PI, Newton SF (2004) European storm-petrel Hydrobates pelagicus. In: Mitchell PI, Newton SF, Ratcliffe N, Dunn TE (eds) Seabird populations of Britain and Ireland. T & AD Poyser, London, pp 81–100Google Scholar
  92. Mills DH (1976) Osteological study of the Pleistocene dormouse Hypnomys morpheus Bate from Mallorca (Rodentia, Gliridae). Publ Paleontol Inst Univ Uppsala 4:5–73Google Scholar
  93. Montgelard C (1992) Albumin preservation in fossil bones and systematics of Malpaisomys insularis (Muridae, Rodentia), an extinct rodent of the Canary Islands. Hist Biol 6:293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Moors PJ, Atkinson IAE (1984) Predation on seabirds by introduced animals, and factors affecting its severity. ICBP Tech Pub 2:667–690Google Scholar
  95. Moors PJ, Atckinson IAE, Sherley GH (1992) Reducing the rat threat to island birds. Bird Conserv Int 2:93–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nogales M, Nieves C, Illera JC et al (2005) Effect of native and alien vertebrate frugivores on seed viability and germination patterns of Rubia fruticosa (Rubiaceae) in the eastern Canary Islands. Funct Ecol 19:429–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Nogales M, Rodríguez-Luengo JL, Marrero P (2006) Ecological effects and distribution of invasive non-native mammals on the Canary Islands. Mammal Rev 36:49–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Norman FI (1975) The Murine Rodents Rattus rattus, exulans and norvegicus as avian predators. Atoll Res Bull 182:1–9Google Scholar
  99. Olesen JM, Eskildsen LI, Venkatasamy S (2002) Invasion of pollination networks on oceanic islands: importance of invader complexes and endemic super generalists. Div Distr 8:181–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Orueta JF, Aranda Y, Gómez T et al (2005) Successful eradication of invasive rodents from a small island through pulsed baiting inside covered stations. Biol Invas 7:141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Palmer M, Pons GX (1996) Diversity in western Mediterranean islets: effects of rat presence on a beetle guild. Acta Oecol 17:297–305Google Scholar
  102. Palmer M, Pons GX (2001) Predicting rat presence on small islands. Ecography 24:121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Palmer M, Pons GX, Cambefort Y et al (1999) Historical processes and environmental factors as determinants of inter-island differences in endemic faunas: the case of the Balearic Islands. J Biogeogr 26:813–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Parmenter RR, MacMahon JA (1988) Factors influencing species composition and population sizes in a ground beetle community (Carabidae): predation by rodents. Oikos 52:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pedro LG, Santos PAG, da Silva JA et al (2001) Essential oils from Azorean Laurus novocanariensis. Phytochemistry 57:245–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Penloup A, Martin J-C, Gory G et al (1997) Distribution and breeding success of pallid swifts, Apus pallidus, on Mediterranean islands: nest predation by the roof rat, Rattus rattus, and nest site quality. Oikos 80:7–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Pérez de Paz PL, Medina I (1988) Catálogo de las plantas medicinales de la flora canaria: aplicaciones populares. Instituto de Estudios Canarios, Monografía XXXV, La LagunaGoogle Scholar
  108. Pérez Padrón F, Miralles Ciscar F (1974) El peligro de las ratas y ratones. Delegación del Ministerio de Agricultura, Santa Cruz de TenerifeGoogle Scholar
  109. Prieto J, Gonzalez-Solis J, Ruiz X et al (2003) Can rats prey on gull eggs? An experimental approach. Biodivers Conserv 12:2477–2486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rando JC (2002) New data of fossil birds from El Hierro (Canary Islands): probable causes of extinction and some biogeographical considerations. Ardeola 49:39–49Google Scholar
  111. Rando JC (2003) Protagonistas de una catástrofe silenciosa: los vertebrados extintos de Canarias. El Indiferente 14:4–15Google Scholar
  112. Rando JC, Alcover JA (2008) Evidence for a second western Palaearctic seabird extinction during the last millennium: the lava shearwater Puffinus olsoni. Ibis 150:188–192 Google Scholar
  113. Renaud S, Michaux J (2004) Parallel evolution in molar outline of murine rodents: the case of the extinct Malpaisomys insularis (eastern Canary Islands). Zool J Linn Soc (London) 142:555–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Reumer JWF, Sanders EAC (1984) Changes in the vertebrate fauna of Menorca in prehistoric and classical times. Z Säugetier 49:321–325Google Scholar
  115. Rodríguez A, McMinn M, Amengual JF et al (2000) La Pardela Cenicienta en el Archipiélago de Cabrera. In: Pons GX (ed) Las Aves del Parque Nacional Marítimo Terrestre del Archipiélago de Cabrera (Islas Baleares; España). GOB—Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, pp 45–70Google Scholar
  116. Rodríguez-Pérez J, Traveset A (2007) A multi-scale approach in the study of plant regeneration: finding bottlenecks is not enough. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 9:1–13Google Scholar
  117. Ruiz A, Marti R (eds) (2004) La Pardela Balear. SEO/Birdlife—Conselleria de Medi Ambient del Govern de les Illes Balears, MadridGoogle Scholar
  118. Salvande M, Mulet M, Gómez LA (2001) Predación de semillas de gibalbera (Semele androgyna) por roedores en la Laurisilva canaria. Resúmenes V Jornadas de la Sociedad Española para la Conservación y Estudio de los Mamíferos (SECEM), VitoriaGoogle Scholar
  119. Salvande M, Gómez LA, Fernández AB (2003) Consumo de semillas de Acebiño (Ilex canariensis) por la Rata (Rattus spp.) en distintos hábitats del monteverde en el Parque Nacional de Garajonay (La Gomera, Islas Canarias, España). In: Rodríguez-Luengo JL (ed) Control de Vertebrados Invasores en Islas de España y Portugal. Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación Territorial del Gobierno de Canarias, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, pp 111–116Google Scholar
  120. Salvande M, Mulet M, Gómez L (2006) Ilex canariensis Poir. (Aquifoliaceae) post-dispersal seed predation in the Canary Islands. Plant Ecol 187:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sanders EAC, Reumer JWF (1984) The influence of Prehistoric and Roman migrations on the vertebrate fauna of Menorca (Spain). In: Waldren WH, Chapman R, Lewthwaite J, Kennard R (eds) The Deya conference of prehistory. Early settlement in the Western Mediterranean Islands and their peripheral areas. British Archaeological Reports, International Series, 229, Oxford, pp 119–144Google Scholar
  122. Schlaepfer MA, Sherman PW, Blossey B et al (2005) Introduced species as evolutionary traps. Ecol Lett 8:241–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sellami A, Maurel D, Kosa E et al (2005) Réponses hormonales du mérion, un rongeur désertique, à la privation d’eau prolongé. Comparaison avec le rat. Mésogée 61:7–15Google Scholar
  124. Seto NWH, Conant S (1996) The effects of rat (Rattus rattus) predation on the reproductive success of the Bonin Petrel (Pterodroma hypoleuca) on Midway Atoll. Colon Waterb 19:171–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Simberloff D, Von Holle B (1999) Positive interactions of nonindigenous species: invasional meltdown? Biol Invas 1:21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Spear LR, Pyle P, Nur N (1998) Natal dispersal in the western Gull: proximal factors and fitness consequences. J Anim Ecol 67:165–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sugihara RT (1997) Abundance and diets of rats in two native Hawaiian forests. Pacific Sci 51:189–198Google Scholar
  128. Thibault J-C (1995) Effect of predation by the black rat Rattus rattus on the breeding success of Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea in Corsica. Mar Ornithol 23:1–10Google Scholar
  129. Thorsen M, Shorten R, Lucking R et al (2000) Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) on Fregate Island, Seychelles: the invasion; subsequent eradication attempts and implications for the island’s fauna. Biol Conserv 96:133–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Towns DR, Atkinson IAE, Daugherty CH (2006) Have the harmful effects of introduced rats on islands been exaggerated? Biol Invasions 8:863–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Traveset A, Richardson DM (2006) Biological invasions as disruptors of plant reproductive mutualisms. Trends Ecol Evol 21:208–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Traveset A, Gulías J, Riera N et al (2003) Transition probabilities from pollination to establishment in a rare dioecious shrub species (Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris) in two habitats. J Ecol 91:427–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Tucker GM, Heath MF (1994) Birds in Europe: their conservation status. Birdlife Conservation Series 3, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  134. Tweed EJ, Foster JT, Woodworth BL et al (2006) Breeding biology and success of a reintroduced population of the critically endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri). Auk 123:753–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Valido A (1999) Ecología de la dispersión de semillas por los lagartos endémicos canarios (g. Gallotia, Lacertidae). PhD Thesis, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, SpainGoogle Scholar
  136. Viada C, Mayol J, Oliver J (2006) El Libro Rojo de los Vertebrados de Baleares. Conselleria de Medi Ambient, Govern de les Illes Balears, MallorcaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Traveset
    • 1
  • M. Nogales
    • 2
  • J. A. Alcover
    • 1
  • J. D. Delgado
    • 3
  • M. López-Darias
    • 2
    • 4
  • D. Godoy
    • 5
  • J. M. Igual
    • 1
  • P. Bover
    • 6
  1. 1.Institut Mediterrani d’Estudis Avançats (CSIC-UIB)Esporles, MallorcaSpain
  2. 2.Island Ecology and Evolution Research Group (CSIC-IPNA)La Laguna, TenerifeSpain
  3. 3.Department of EcologyUniversity of La LagunaLa Laguna, TenerifeSpain
  4. 4.Department of Applied BiologyEstación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC)SevilleSpain
  5. 5.Ayagaures MedioambienteLas Palmas de Gran CanariaSpain
  6. 6.Department of MammalogyAmerican Museum of Natural HistoryNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations