Advertisement

Biological Invasions

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 149–157 | Cite as

We can eliminate invasions or live with them. Successful management projects

  • Daniel Simberloff
Review Paper

Abstract

Pessimism about the prospects of eradicating invasive species or managing them at acceptably low densities is fostered by publicity about failures, but it is often unwarranted. Many species, including insects, plants, and aquatic invaders of various taxa, have been eradicated, and a variety of management techniques have maintained others at low densities for long periods. Many of these projects entailed low-tech, scorched-earth approaches, often using mechanical, physical, or chemical means. Others required sophisticated scientific research. There are at best rough guidelines rather than general rules about what approach to undertake. It is therefore important in each case to consider the full range of possible methods for eradication or long-term control, including the possibility of marshalling a massive amount of physical labor.

Keywords

Biological control Eradication Maintenance management 

Notes

Acknowledgment

Richard Mack and an anonymous referee provided insightful comments on an early draft of this manuscript.

References

  1. Abbott KL (2004) Alien ant invasion on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: the role of ant-scale mutualisms in the dynamics of supercolonies of the yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes. Ph.D. Thesis, Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  2. Anonymous (2005) Monster machines. Wildland Weeds 9(1):12–13Google Scholar
  3. Aptekar R (2000) Ammophila arenaria. In: Bossard CC, Randall JM, Hoshovsky MC (eds) Invasive plants of California’s wildlands. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 42–46Google Scholar
  4. Ayers EL (1957) The two medfly eradication programs in Florida. Annu Meet Fla State Hort Soc 70:67–69Google Scholar
  5. Baumhover AH, Graham AJ, Bitter BA, Hopkins DE, New WD, Dudley FH, Buchland RC (1955) Screw-worm control through release of sterilized flies. J Econ Entomol 48:462–466Google Scholar
  6. Bourne J (2000) A history of rat control in Alberta. Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, EdmontonGoogle Scholar
  7. Buhs JB (2004) The fire ant wars. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  8. Campbell C, Carter FD (1999) The Florida Department of Corrections involvement in exotic pest plant control. In: Jones DT, Gamble BW (eds) Florida’s garden of good and evil. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, West Palm Beach, pp 147–149Google Scholar
  9. Campbell KJ, Baxter GS, Murray PJ, Coblentz BE, Donlan CE, Carrion GV (2005) Increasing the efficacy of Judas goats by sterilization and pregnancy termination. Wildl Res 32:737–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carson R (1962) Silent spring. Houghton Mifflin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  11. Center TD, Frank JH, Dray FA Jr (1997) Biological control. In: Simberloff D, Schmitz DC, Brown TC (eds) Strangers in paradise, impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Island Press, Washington, pp 245–283Google Scholar
  12. Colman PH (1978) An invading giant. Wildl Aust 15(2):46–47Google Scholar
  13. Crooks JA (2005) Lag times and exotic species: the ecology and management of biological invasions in slow-motion. Écoscience 12:316–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dahlsten DL (1986) Control of invaders. In: Mooney HA, Drake JA (eds) Ecology of biological invasions of North America and Hawaii. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 275–302Google Scholar
  15. Davis JR, Garcia R (1989) Malaria mosquito in Brazil. In: Dahlsten DL, Garcia R (eds) Eradication of exotic pests. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 274–283Google Scholar
  16. Duke-Sylvester SM (2006) Applying landscape-scale modeling to Everglades restoration. PhD Dissertation, University of Tennessee, KnoxvilleGoogle Scholar
  17. Elmendorf S, Byrnes J, Wright A, Olyarnik S, Fischer R, Chamberlin L (2005) Fear and fishing in Lake Davis (DVD). Flag in the Ground Productions, DavisGoogle Scholar
  18. Eplee RE (2001) Coordination of witchweed eradication in the USA. In: Wittenberg R, Cock MJW (eds) Invasive alien species: a toolkit of best prevention and management practices. CAB International, Wallingford, p 36Google Scholar
  19. Fenner F, Henderson DA, Arita I, Ježek Z, Ladnyi ID (1988) Smallpox and its eradication. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  20. Ferriter A (2004) TAME Melaleuca. Wildland Weeds 7(2):5–6Google Scholar
  21. Flint EN, Rehkemper C (2002) Control and eradication of the introduced grass, Cenchrus echinatus, at Laysan Island, central Pacific Ocean. In: Veitch CR, Clout MN (eds) Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland, pp 110–115Google Scholar
  22. Fuller TC, Barbe GD (1985) The Bradley method of eliminating exotic plants from natural reserves. Fremontia 13(2):24–25Google Scholar
  23. Gosling M (1989) Extinction to order. New Sci 121:44–49Google Scholar
  24. Higgins SI, Richardson DM, Cowling RM (2000) Using a dynamic landscape model for planning the management of alien plant invasions. Ecol Appl 10:1833–1848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Iwahashi O (1996) Problems encountered during long-term SIT program in Japan. In: McPheron BA, Steck GJ (eds) Fruit fly pests: a world assessment of their biology and management. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, pp 391–398Google Scholar
  26. Klassen W, Curtis CF (2005) History of the sterile insect technique. In: Dyck VA, Hendrichs J, Robinson AS (eds) Sterile insect technique. Principles and practice in area-wide integrated pest management. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 3–36Google Scholar
  27. Krajick K (2005) Winning the war against island invaders. Science 310:1410–1413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kuba H, Kohama T, Kakinohana H, Yamagishi M, Kinjo K, Sokei Y, Nakasone T, Nakamoto Y (1996) The successful eradication programs of the melon fly in Okinawa. In: McPheron BA, Steck GJ (eds) Fruit fly pests: a world assessment of their biology and management. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, pp 534–550Google Scholar
  29. Lapeyssonie L (1988) La Médecine coloniale. Seghers, ParisGoogle Scholar
  30. Laroche FB (ed) (1994) Melaleuca management plan for Florida. Exotic Pest Plant Council, South Florida Water Management District, West Palm BeachGoogle Scholar
  31. Laroche FB, McKim J (2004) Cost comparison of melaleuca treatment methods. Wildland Weeds 7(2):12–15Google Scholar
  32. Lin S (2006) Biologists score rare victory under the sea. Los Angeles Times July 13:B2Google Scholar
  33. Mack RN, Foster SK (2004) Eradication or control? Combating plants through a lump sum payment or on the installment plan. In: Sindel BM, Johnson SB (eds) Proceedings of the fourteenth Australian weeds conference. Weed Science Society of New South Wales, Sydney, pp 55–61Google Scholar
  34. Mack RN, Lonsdale MW (2002) Eradicating invasive plants: hard-won lessons for islands. In: Veitch CR, Clout MN (eds) Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, pp 4–12Google Scholar
  35. Manzano P (1995) Working under guard. Oregonian (Portland) May 17:B1, B7Google Scholar
  36. McQueen C, Noemdoe S, Jezile N (2000) The Working for water programme. In: Preston G, Brown G, van Wyk E (eds) Best management practices for preventing and controlling invasive alien species, pp 51–54. Symposium proceedings. The Working for Water Programme, Cape Town, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  37. Mead AR (1979) Ecological malacology: with particular reference to Achatina fulica. In: Fretter V, Fretter J, Peake J (eds) Pulmonates, vol 2b. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Meinesz A (2001) Killer algae, 2nd edn. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  39. Merkel & Associates, Inc (2006) Final report on the eradication of the invasive seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia from Agua Hedionda Lagoon and Huntington Harbour, California. Southern California Caulerpa Action Team, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  40. Moody ME, Mack RN (1988) Controlling the spread of plant invasions: the importance of nascent foci. J Appl Ecol 25:1009–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Myers JH, Simberloff D, Kuris AM, Carey JR (2000) Eradication revisited: dealing with exotic species. Trends Ecol Evol 15:316–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Myers RL, Belles HA, Snyder JR (2001) Prescribed fire in the management of Melaleuca quinquenervia in subtropical Florida. In: Galley KEM, Wilson TP (eds) Proceedings of the invasive species workshop: the role of fire in the control and spread of invasive species, pp 132–140. Fire conference 2000: the first national congress on fire ecology, prevention, and management. Miscellaneous Publication No. 11, Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  43. Naik G (2001) A fish-tank favorite becomes a killer weed beneath the waves. Wall St J August 13:1Google Scholar
  44. Newman A (2004) You call this a vacation? NY Times June 18:D1, D4Google Scholar
  45. Nieves E (2002) Renegade fish is outlasting even bombings. NY Times May 6:A1, A15Google Scholar
  46. O’Dowd DJ, Green PT, Lake PS (2003) Invasional “meltdown” on an oceanic island. Ecol Lett 6:812–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment (New Zealand) (2000) New Zealand under siege: a review of the management of biosecurity risks to the environment. Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  48. Perry T, Mehta S (2000) Invader threatens Southland waters. Los Angeles Times July 6:A3Google Scholar
  49. Pickart AJ, Sawyer JO (1998) Ecology and restoration of northern California coastal dunes. California Native Plant Society, SacramentoGoogle Scholar
  50. Quammen D (1998) Planet of weeds. Harper’s Magazine 275(Oct):57–69Google Scholar
  51. Randall R (2001) Eradication of a deliberately introduced plant found to be invasive. In: Wittenberg R, Cock MJW (eds) Invasive alien species: a toolkit of best prevention and management practices. CAB International Wallingford, Oxon, p 174Google Scholar
  52. Randall JM, Lewis RRIII, Jensen DB (1997) Ecological restoration. In: Simberloff D, Schmitz DC, Brown TC (eds) Strangers in paradise impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Island Press, Washington, pp 205–219Google Scholar
  53. Rejmánek M, Pitcairn MJ (2002) When is eradication of exotic pest plants a realistic goal? In: Veitch CR, Clout MN (eds) Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, pp 249–253Google Scholar
  54. Rohrbach C (2003) Kudzu quelling, farm-style. Tenn Conserv 69(6):4–8Google Scholar
  55. Schardt JD (1997) Maintenance control. In: Simberloff D, Schmitz DC, Brown TC (eds) Strangers in paradise. Impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Island Press, Washington, pp 229–244Google Scholar
  56. Scoch D (2000) “Killer alga” invades Orange County. Los Angeles Times September 23:B1Google Scholar
  57. Simberloff D (1999) Needs and opportunities. In: Ridgway RL, Gregg WP, Stinner RE, Brown AG (eds) Invasive species databases, proceedings of a workshop. U.S. Departments of Interior, Agriculture, and Commerce, and C.V. Riley Memorial Foundation, Silver Spring, Maryland, pp 38–41Google Scholar
  58. Simberloff D (2002a) Today Tiritiri Matangi, tomorrow the world!—are we aiming too low in invasives control? In: Veitch CR, Clout MN (eds) Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, pp 4–12Google Scholar
  59. Simberloff D (2002b) Why not eradication? In: Rapport DJ, Lasley WL, Ralston DE, Nielsen NO, Qualset CO, Damania AB (eds) Managing for healthy ecosystems. CRC/Lewis Press, Boca Raton, pp 541–548Google Scholar
  60. Simberloff D (2003) How much information on population biology is needed to manage introduced species? Conserv Biol 17:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Simberloff D (2004) Community ecology: is it time to move on? Am Nat 163:787–799PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Simberloff D, Stiling PD (1996) How risky is biological control? Ecology 77:1965–1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Simons M (1997) A delicate Pacific seaweed is now a monster of the deep. NY Times August 16:A1, A4Google Scholar
  64. Soper FL, Wilson DB (1943) Anopheles gambiae in Brazil, 1930–1940. The Rockefeller Foundation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  65. Sorensen PW, Vrieze LA (2003) The chemical ecology and potential application of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone. J Great Lakes Res 29(Supplement 1):66–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sorensen PW, Stacey NE (2004) Brief review of fish pheromones and discussion of their possible uses in the control of non-indigenous teleost fishes. NZ J Mar Freshwater Res 38:399–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sorensen PW, Fine JM, Dvornikovs V, Jeffrey CS, Shao F, Wang J, Vrieze LA, Anderson KR, Hoye TR (2005) Mixture of new sulfated steroids functions as a migratory pheromone in the sea lamprey. Nat Chem Biol 1:324–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Spear RJ (2005) The great gypsy moth war. University of Massachusetts Press, AmherstGoogle Scholar
  69. Steiner LF, Mitchell WC, Harris EJ, Kozuma TT, Fujimoto MS (1965) Oriental fruit fly eradication by male annihilation. J Econ Entomol 58:961–964Google Scholar
  70. Steiner LF, Hart WG, Harris EJ, Cunningham RT, Ohinata K, Kamakahi DC (1970) Eradication of the oriental fruit fly from the Mariana Islands by the methods of male annihilation and sterile insect release. J Econ Entomol 63:131–135Google Scholar
  71. Tershy BR, Donlan CJ, Keitt BS, Croll DA, Sanchez JA, Wood B, Hermosillo MA, Howald GR, Biavaschi N (2002) Island conservation in north-west Mexico: a conservation model integrating research, education, and exotic mammal eradication. In: Veitch CR, Clout MN (eds) Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, pp 293–300Google Scholar
  72. Towns DR, Broome KG (2003) From small Maria to massive Campbell: forty years of rat eradications from New Zealand islands. NZ J Zool 30:377–398Google Scholar
  73. van Wilgen B, Richardson D, Higgins S (2000) Integrated control of invasive alien plants in terrestrial ecosystems. In: Preston, G, Brown G, van Wyk E (eds) Best management practices for preventing and controlling invasive alien species, symposium proceedings. The Working for Water Programme, Cape Town, South Africa, pp 118–128Google Scholar
  74. Wadsworth RA, Collingham YC, Willis SG, Huntley B, Hulme PE (2000) Simulating the spread and management of alien riparian weeds: are they out of control? J Appl Ecol 37(Suppl 1):28–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Whitten M, Mahon R (2005) Misconceptions and constraints. In: Dyck VA, Hendrichs J, Robinson AS (eds) Sterile insect technique, principles and practice in area-wide integrated pest management. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 601–626Google Scholar
  76. Whittle AJ, Lenhart S, Gross LJ (2007) Optimal control for management of an invasive plant species. Math Biosci Eng 4:101–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Williams T (1997) Killer weeds. Audubon 99(2):24–31Google Scholar
  78. Williamson M (1996) Biological invasions. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  79. Williamson M (1999) Invasions. Ecography 22:5–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wittenberg R, Cock MJW (eds) (2001) Invasive alien species: a toolkit of best prevention and management practices. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  81. Zimmermann HG, Moran VC, Hoffmann JH (2001) The renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): its natural history and threat to native Opuntia floras in Mexico and the United States of America. Fla Entomol 84:543–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations