Biological Invasions

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 875–890 | Cite as

Allelopathy and plant invasions: traditional, congeneric, and bio-geographical approaches

  • Inderjit
  • Timothy R. Seastedt
  • Ragan M. Callaway
  • Jarrod L. Pollock
  • Jasleen Kaur
Original Paper


A relatively small subset of exotic plant species competitively exclude their neighbors in invaded “recipient” communities but coexist with neighbors in their native habitat. Allelopathy has been argued as one of the mechanisms by which such exotics may become successful invaders. Three approaches have been used to examine allelopathy as a mechanism for invasion. The traditional approach examines exotic invasives in the same way that other native plants also suspected of allelopathic activities are studied. In this approach dose, fate, and replenishment of chemicals can provide powerful evidence for allelopathic processes. The bio-geographical approach often does not provide as much mechanistic evidence for allelopathy, but comparing the allelopathic effects of exotic invasives on species from their native and invaded communities yields stronger evidence than the traditional approach for whether or not allelopathy actually contributes to invasive success. The congeneric, or phylogenetic, approach involves comparative studies of exotic species with natives in the same genus or that are as closely related as possible. Congeneric approaches are limited in inference and have been used to study the role of natural enemies in exotic invasion, but this approach has not been widely used to study allelopathy and invasion. We discuss these three approaches and present a data set for congeneric Lantana and Prosopis to illustrate how the congeneric approach can be used, and use Centaurea maculosa and (±)-catechin to demonstrate experimentally how traditional and bio-geographic approaches can be integrated to shed light on allelopathy in exotic plant invasions.


Allelopathy Bio-geographical approach Catechin Congeneric approach Novel weapons hypothesis Traditional approach 



Inderjit’s research is funded by the Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) and Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR). We thank Naomi Cappuccino, Leslie Weston, and Anne Osbourn for their critical evaluation. RMC thanks the DoD SERDP for support while TRS acknowledges funding from USDA CSREES.


  1. Abdul-Wahab AS, Rice EL (1967) Plant inhibition by Johnsongrass and its possible significance in old-field succession. Bull Torrey Bot Club 94:486–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achhireddy NR, Singh M (1984) Allelopathic effects of Lantana (Lantana camara) on milkweed vine (Morrenia odorata). Weed Sci 32:757–761Google Scholar
  3. Achhireddy NR, Singh M, Achhireddy LL, Nigg HN, Nagy S (1985) Isolation and partial characteristics of phytotoxic compounds from Lantana (Lantana camara). J Chem Ecol 11:979–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adetayo OB, Lawal OI, Alabi BS, Owolade OF (2005) Allelopathic effect of siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) on seed germination and seedling performance of selected crop and weed species. In: Proceedings of IV World Allelopathy Congress, Australia, pp 348–351Google Scholar
  5. Agrawal AA, Kotanen PM (2003) Herbivores and the success of exotic plants: a phylogenetically controlled experiment. Ecol Lett 6:712–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bais HP, Walker TS, Stermitz FR, Hufbauer RA, Vivanco JM (2002) Enantiomeric-dependent phytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of (±)-catechin. A rhizosecreted racemic mixture from spotted knapweed. Plant Physiol 128:1173–1179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bais HP, Vepachedu R, Gilroy S, Callaway RM, Vivanco JM (2003) Allelopathy and exotic plant invasion: from molecules and genes to species interactions. Science 301:1377–1380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barney JN, Hay AG, Weston LA (2005) Isolation and characterization of allelopathic volatiles from mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). J Chem Ecol 31:247–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baruah NC, Sarma JC, Sarma S, Sharma RP (1994) Seed germination and growth inhibitory cadinenes from Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. J Chem Ecol 20:1885–1892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blair AC, Hanson BD, Brunk GR, Marrs RA, Westra P, Nissen SJ, Hufbauer RA (2005) New techniques and findings in the study of a candidate allelochemical implicated in invasion success. Ecol Lett 8:1039–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blair AC, Nissen SJ, Brunk GR, Hufbauer RA (2006) A lack of evidence for an ecological role of the putative allelochemical (±)-catechin in spotted knapweed invasion success. J Chem Ecol 32:2327–2331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bousquet-Mélou A, Louis S, Robles C, Greff S, Dupouyet S, Fernandez C (2005) Allelopathic potential of Medicago arborea, a Mediterranean invasive shrub. Chemoecology 15:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buta JG, Lusby WR (1986) Catechins as germination and growth inhibitors in lespedeza seeds. Phytochemistry 25:93–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Callaway RM, Aschehoug ET (2000) Invasive plant versus their new and old neighbors: a mechanism for exotic invasion. Science 290:521–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Callaway RM, Hierro JL (2005) Resistance and susceptibility of plant communities to invasion: revisiting Rabotnov’s ideas about community homeostasis. In: Reigosa MJ, Pedrol N, González L (eds) Allelopathy: a physiological process with ecological implications. Springer, The Netherlands, pp 395–414Google Scholar
  16. Callaway RM, Ridenour WM (2004) Novel weapons: invasive success and the evolution of increased competitive ability. Front Ecol Environ 2:436–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Callaway RM, Thelen GC, Rodriguez A, Holben WE (2004a) Soil biota and exotic plant invasion. Nature 427:731–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Callaway RM, Thelen GC, Barth S, Ramsey PW, Gannon JE (2004b) Soil fungi alter interactions between the invader Centaurea maculosa and North American natives. Ecology 85:1062–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Callaway RM, Hierro JL, Thorpe AS (2005a) Evolutionary trajectories in plant and soil microbial communities: Centaurea invasions and the geographic mosaic of coevolution. In: Sax DF, Gaines SD, Stachowicz JJ (eds) Exotic species invasions: insights into ecology, evolution and biogeography. Sinauer, Sunderland, pp 341–363Google Scholar
  20. Callaway RM, Ridenour WM, Laboski T, Weir T, Vivanco JM (2005b) Natural selection for resistance to the allelopathic effects of invasive plants. J Ecol 93:576–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Callaway RM, Cipollini D, Barto K, Thelen GC, Hallett SG, Prati D, Stinson K, Klironomos J (in press) Novel weapons: invasive plant suppresses fungal mutualists in America but not in its native Europe. EcologyGoogle Scholar
  22. Cappuccino N, Carpenter D (2005) Invasive exotic plants suffer less herbivory than non-invasive plants. Biol Lett 1:435–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cappuccino N, Arnason JT (2006) Novel chemistry of invasive exotic plants. Biol Lett 2:189–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carey EV, Marler MJ, Callaway RM (2004) Mycorrhizae transfer carbon from a native grass to an invasive weed: evidence from stable isotopes and physiology. Plant Ecol 172:133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carpenter D, Cappuccino N (2005) Herbivory, time since introduction and the invasiveness of exotic plants. J Ecol 93:315–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chapuis-Lardy L, Vanderhoeven S, Dassonville N, Koutika LS, Meerts P (2006) Effect of the exotic invasive plant Solidago gigantea on soil phosphorus status. Biol Fertil Soils 42:481–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. D’Abrosca B, Dellagreca M, Fiorention A, Isidori M, Monaco P, Pacifico S (2006) Chemical constituents of the aquatic plant Schoenoplectus lacustris: evaluation of phytotoxic effects on the green alga Selenatrum capricornutum. J Chem Ecol 32:81–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dayama DP (1986) Allelopathic potential of Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. on growth, nodulation and nitrogen content of Leucaena leucocephala. Leucaena Res Rep 7:36–37Google Scholar
  29. El-Ghareeb RM (1991) Suppression of annuals by Tribulus terrestris in an abandoned field in the sandy desert of Kuwait. J Veg Sci 2:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. El-Keblawy A, Al-Rawai A (2007) Impacts of the invasive exotic Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) D.C. on the native flora and soils of the UAE. Plant Ecol 190:23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Evans HC (1997) Parthenium hysterophorus: a review of its weed status and the possibilities for biological control. Biocontrol 18:389N–398NGoogle Scholar
  32. Furubayashi A, Hiradate S, Fujii Y (2007) Role of catechol structure in the adsorption and transformation reactions of l-dopa in soils. J Chem Ecol 33:239–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gentle CB, Duggin JA (1997) Allelopathy as a comparative strategy in persistent thickets of Lantana camara L. in three Australian forest communities. Plant Ecol 132:85–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Goel U, Saxena DB, Kumar B (1989) Comparative study of allelopathy as exhibited by Prosopis juliflora Swartz and Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce. J Chem Ecol 15:591–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hierro JL, Callaway RM (2003) Allelopathy and exotic plant invasion. Plant Soil 256:29–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hierro JL, Maron JL, Callaway RM (2005) A biogeographical approach to plant invasions: the importance of studying exotics in their introduced and native range. J Ecol 93:5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Inderjit (1998) Influence of Pluchea lanceolata (Asteraceae) on selected soil properties. Am J Bot 85:64–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Inderjit (2001) Soils: environmental effect on allelochemical activity. Agron J 93:79–84Google Scholar
  39. Inderjit (2005) Soil microorganisms: an important determinant of allelopathic activity. Plant Soil 274:227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Inderjit (2006) Experimental complexities in evaluating the allelopathic activities in laboratory bioassays: a case study. Soil Biol Biochem 38:256–262Google Scholar
  41. Inderjit, Callaway RM (2003) Experimental designs for the study of allelopathy. Plant Soil 256:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Inderjit, Foy CL (1999) Nature of the interference mechanism of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). Weed Technol 13:176–182Google Scholar
  43. Inderjit, Nilsen ET (2003) Bioassays and field studies for allelopathy in terrestrial plants: progress and problems. Crit Rev Plant Sci 22:221–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Inderjit, Weiner J (2001) Plant allelochemical interference or soil chemical ecology? Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 4:4–12Google Scholar
  45. Inderjit, Cadotte M, Colautti RI (2005) The ecology of biological invasions: past, present and future. In: Inderjit (ed) Invasive plants: ecological and agricultural aspects. Birkhauser-Verlag AG, Basal, pp 19–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Inderjit, Callaway RC, Vivanco JM (2006) Plant biochemistry helps to understand invasion ecology. Trends Plant Sci 11:574–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Iqbal Z, Hiradate S, Noda A, Isojima S, Fujii Y (2003) Allelopathic activity of buckwheat: isolation and characterization of phenolics. Weed Sci 51:657–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jarvis BB, Pena NB, Rao MM, Coumlaut NS, Coumbut TF, Mandava NB (1985) Allelopathic agents from Parthenium hysterophorus and Baccharis megapotamica. In: Thompson AC (ed) The Chemistry of allelopathy. American Chemical Society, Washington, pp 149–159Google Scholar
  49. Kanchan SD, Jayachandra (1979) Allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus L. I. Exudation of inhibitors through roots. Plant Soil 53:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kanchan SD, Jayachandra (1980) Pollen allelopathy—a new phenomenon. New Phytol 84:739–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Karban R (2007) Experimental clipping of sagebrush inhibits seed germination of neighbors. Ecol Lett 10:791–797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kong CH, Wang P, Zhang CX, Zhang MX, Hu F (2006) Herbicidal potential of allelochemicals from Lantana camara against Eichhornia crassipes and the alga Microcystis aeruginosa. Weed Res 46:290–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. LeJeune KD, Seastedt TR (2001) Centaurea species: the Forb that won the west. Conserv Biol 15:1568–1574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lortie CJ, Brooker RW, Choler P, Kikvidze Z, Michalet R, Pugnaire FI, Callaway RM (2004) Rethinking plant community theory. Oikos 107:433–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mack RN, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM, Evans H, Clout M, Bazzaz FA (2000) Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol Appl 10:689–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mahall BE, Callaway RM (1992) Root communication mechanisms and intracommunity distributions of two Mojave desert shrubs. Ecology 73:2145–2151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mallik AU, Pellissier F (2000) Effects of Vaccinium myrtillus on spruce regeneration: testing the notion of coevolutionary significance of allelopathy. J Chem Ecol 26:2197–2209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mangla S, Inderjit, Callaway RM (2008) Exotic invasive plant accumulates soil pathogens which inhibit native plants. J Ecol 96:58–67Google Scholar
  59. Marler MJ, Zabinski CA, Wojtowicz T, Callaway RM (1999) Mycorrhizae and fine root dynamics of Centaurea maculosa and native bunchgrasses in western Montana. Northwest Sci 73:217–224Google Scholar
  60. Meekins JF, McCarthy BC (1999) Comparative ability of Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, Brassicaceae), an invasive nonindigenous forest herb. Int J Plant Sci 160:743–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mitchell CE, Agrawal AA, Bever JD, Gilbert GS, Hufbauer RA, Klironomos JN, Maron JL, Morris WF, Parker IM, Power AG, Seabloom EW, Torchin ME, Vázquez DP (2006) Biotic interactions and plant invasions. Ecol Lett 9:726–740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Müller-Schärer H, Schroeder D (1993) The biological control of Centaurea spp. in North America: do insects solve the problem? Pestic Sci 37:343–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Myers JH (2004) A silver bullet in the biological control of diffuse knapweed. ESA 2004 Annual meeting abstract. Accessed 11/05/05
  64. Nakano H, Fujii Y, Suzuki T, Yamada K, Kosemura S, Yamamura S, Suzuki T, Hasegawa K (2001) A growth-inhibitory substance exuded from freeze-dried mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.) leaves. Plant Growth Regul 33:165–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nakano H, Fujii Y, Yamada K, Kosemura S, Yamamura S, Hasegawa K, Suzuki T (2002) Isolation and identification of plant growth inhibitors as candidate(s) for allelopathic substance(s), from aqueous leachate from mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.) leaves. Plant Growth Regul 37:113–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nakano H, Nakajima E, Fujii Y, Yamada K, Shigemori H, Hasegawa K (2003) Leaching of the allelopathic substance, l-tryptophan from the foliage of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.) plants by water spraying. Plant Growth Regul 40:49–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Norton AP, Blair AC, Hardi JG, Nissen SJ, Brunk GR (2008) Herbivory and novel weapons: no evidence for enhanced competitive ability or allelopathy induction of Centaurea diffusa by biological controls. Biol Invasions 10:79–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nuzzo V (1999) Invasion pattern of the herb garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) in high quality forests. Biol Invasions 1:169–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Onwugbuta EJ (2001) Allelopathic effects of Chromolaena odorata L. (R.M. King and Robinson—(Awolowo Plant’)) toxin on tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill). J Appl Sci Environ Manage 5:69–73Google Scholar
  70. Perry LG, Johnson C, Alford ÉR, Vivanco JM, Paschke MW (2005a) Screening of grassland plants for restoration after spotted knapweed invasion. Restor Ecol 13:725–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Perry LG, Thelen GC, Ridenour WM, Weir TL, Callaway RM, Paschke MW, Vivanco JM (2005b) Dual role for an allelochemical: (±)-catechin from Centaurea maculosa root exudates regulates conspecific seedling establishment. J Ecol 93:1126–1135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Perry LG, Thelen GC, Ridenour WM, Callaway RM, Paschke MW, Vivanco JM (2007) Concentrations of the allelochemical (±)-catechin in Centaurea maculosa soils. J Chem Ecol 33:2337–2344 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pisutthanan N, Liawruangrath B, Liawruangrath S, Bremner JB (2006) A new flavonoid from Chromolaena odorata. Nat Prod Res 20:1192–1198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Prati D, Bossdorf O (2004) Allelopathic inhibition of germination by Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae). Am J Bot 91:285–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Preston CA, Betts H, Baldwin IT (2002) Methyl jasmonate as an allelopathic agent: sagebrush inhibits germination of a neighboring tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata. J Chem Ecol 28:2343–2369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rabotnov TA (1982) Importance of the evolutionary approach to the study of allelopathy. Ékologia, May–June(3):5–8 (translated from Russian)Google Scholar
  77. Ridenour WM, Callaway RM (2001) The relative importance of allelopathy in interference: the effects of an invasive weed on a native bunchgrass. Oecologia 126:444–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ridenour WM, Vivanco JM, Feng Y, Horiuchi J, Callaway RM (in press) No evidence for tradeoffs: Centaurea plants from America are better competitors and defenders than plants from the native range. EcologyGoogle Scholar
  79. Rudrappa T, Bonsall J, Gallagher JL, Seliskar DM, Bais HP (2007) Root-secreted allelochemical in the noxious weed Phragmites australis deploys a reactive oxygen species response and microtubule assembly disruption to execute rhizotoxicity. J Chem Ecol 33:1898–1918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Seastedt TR, Suding KN, LeJeune KD (2005) Understanding Invasions: the rise and fall of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) in North America. In: Inderjit (ed) Invasive plants: ecological and agricultural aspects. Birkhauser-Verlag AG, Basal, pp 129–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Seastedt TR, Garmoe M, Knochel D, Shosky S (2007) Interactions and effects of multiple biological control insects on diffuse and spotted knapweed in the Front Range of Colorado. Biol Control 42:345–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sharma R, Dakshini KMM (1998) Integration of plant and soil characteristics and the ecological success of two Prosopis species. Plant Ecol 139:63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sharma GP, Raghubanshi AS, Singh JS (2005) Lantana invasion: an overview. Weed Biol Manag 5:157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Smith L (2004) Impact of biological control agents on diffuse knapweed in central Montana. In: Cullen JM, Briese DT, Kriticos DJ, Lonsdale WM, Morin L, Scott J (eds) XI international symposium on biological control of weeds. CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia, pp 589–593Google Scholar
  85. Sola NH, Juliani HR, Cabrera JL (1992) Determination of some soil components under Prosopis ruscifolia. Agrochimica 36:148–153Google Scholar
  86. Srivastava JN, Shukla JP, Srivastava RC (1985) Effect of Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. extract on seed germination and seedling growth of barley. Acta Bot Indica 13:194–197Google Scholar
  87. Stinson KA, Campbell SA, Powell JR, Wolfe BE, Callaway RM, Thelen GC, Hallett SG, Prati D, Klironomos JN (2006) Invasive plant suppresses the growth of native tree seedlings by disrupting belowground mutualisms. PLoS Biology 4: e 140. doi: 10.1371/Journal.pbio.0040140
  88. Stinson K, Kaufman S, Durbin L, Lowenstein F (2007) Impacts of garlic mustard invasion on a forest understory community. NENA (in press)Google Scholar
  89. Story JM, Good WR, White LJ, Smith L (2000) Effects of the interaction of the biocontrolagent, Agapeta zoegana L. (Lepidoptera: Cochylidae), and grass competition on spotted knapweed. Biol Control 17:182–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Story JM, Callan NW, Corn JG, White LJ (2006) Decline of spotted knapweed density at two sites in western Montana with large populations of the introduced root weevil, Cyphocleonus achates (Fahraeus). Biol Control 38:227–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Swain T, Hillis WE (1959) The phenolic constituents of Prunus domestica L-the quantitative analysis of phenolic constituents. J Sci Food Agric 10:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Thelen GC, Vivanco JM, Newingham B, Good W, Bais HP, Landres P, Caesar A, Callaway RM (2005) Insect herbivory stimulates allelopathic exudation by an invasive plant and the suppression of natives. Ecol Lett 8:209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Thorpe A (2006) Biochemical effects of Centaurea maculosa on soil nutrient cycles and plant communities. PhD Dissertation, University of Montana, Missoula, USAGoogle Scholar
  94. Thorpe AS, Archer V, Deluca TH (2006) The invasive forb, Centaurea maculosa, increases phosphorus availability in Montana grasslands. Appl Soil Ecol 32:118–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Vivanco JM, Bais HP, Stermitz FR, Thelen GC, Callaway RM (2004) Biogeographical variation in community response to root allelochemistry: novel weapons and exotic invasion. Ecol Lett 7:285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Weidenhamer J, Romeo J (2004) Allelochemicals of Polygonella myriophylla: chemistry and soil degradation. J Chem Ecol 30:1067–1082PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Weidenhamer JD, Hartnett DC, Romeo JT (1989) Density-dependent phytotoxicity: distinguishing resource competition and allelopathic interference in plants. J Appl Ecol 26:613–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Weir TL, Bais HP, Vivanco JM (2003) Intraspecific and interspecific interactions mediated by a phytotoxin (−)-catechin, secreted by the roots of Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed). J Chem Ecol 29:2397–2412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Weir TL, Park S-W, Vivanco JM (2004) Biochemical and physiological mechanisms mediated by allelochemicals. Curr Opin Plant Biol 7:472–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Williamson M (1996) Biological invasions. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  101. Yang X, Owens TG, Scheffler BE, Weston A (2004) Manipulation of root hair development and sorgoleone production in sorghum seedlings. J Chem Ecol 30:199–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Inderjit
    • 1
  • Timothy R. Seastedt
    • 2
  • Ragan M. Callaway
    • 3
  • Jarrod L. Pollock
    • 3
  • Jasleen Kaur
    • 4
  1. 1.Centre for Environmental Management of Degraded Ecosystems (CEMDE)University of DelhiDelhiIndia
  2. 2.Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and INSTAARUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA
  3. 3.Organismal Biology and Ecology, Division of Biological SciencesUniversity of MontanaMissoulaUSA
  4. 4.SGTB Khalsa CollegeUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations