Biological Invasions

, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 1041–1051

Invasive riparian plant litter alters aquatic insect growth

Original Paper

Abstract

In a laboratory study, we examined growth and survival of the caddisfly, Lepidostoma unicolor, feeding on two types of native leaf litter (Alnus rhombifolia [Alder] and a Salicaceae mix [Salix spp. and Populus fremontii]) and two invasive, non-native species (Tamarix ramosissima [saltcedar] and Arundo donax [giant reed]). Larval survival was high (>85%), and did not differ, among those fed Alnus, Salicaceae, or Tamarix litter, but was much lower (20%) for larvae fed Arundo litter. Mean dry biomass of larvae fed Tamarix was 45% greater than that of larvae fed Alnus, and both were significantly greater than the biomasses of insects fed Salicaceae or Arundo. Although both Alnus and Tamarix increased in percent nitrogen with conditioning, Alnus had a significantly higher nitrogen content (4.9 and 3.6%, respectively). Final C : N-values for Alnus and Tamarix were below 18, while C : N for Arundo and Salicaceae were 56 and 44, respectively. Greater growth of larvae fed Tamarix is likely due to the high nutritive value of the conditioned litter, whereas conditioning of Arundo litter did not result in improved nutritive values. Larvae in the Alnus and Salicaceae treatments fed on the entire surface of the leaves until only the skeletons remained. In contrast, larvae in the Arundo treatments focused feeding activity along the margins and the torn portions of the blades. The low nutritional quality of Arundo and the high quality, but ephemeral nature of Tamarix litter potentially have negative effects on stream invertebrate production owing to the quality and duration of availability of leaf litter, as compared with native riparian vegetation.

Keywords

Allochthonous Aquatic insect Arundo donax CPOM Growth rate Invasive species Lepidostoma Riparian Tamarix 

Abbreviations

C : N

Carbon to Nitrogen mass ratio

CPOM/FPOM

Coarse or Fine Particulate Organic Material

References

  1. Azevedo-Pereira HVS, Graça MAS, Gonzalez JM (2006) Life history of Lepidostoma hirtum in an Iberian stream and its role in organic matter processing. Hydrobiologia 559:183–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey JK, Schweitzer JA, Whitham TG (2001) Salt cedar negatively affects biodiversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Wetlands 21:442–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Basaguren A, Riano P, Pozo J (2002) Life history patterns and dietary changes of several caddisfly (Trichoptera) species in a northern Spain stream. Arch Hydrobiol 155:23–41Google Scholar
  4. Bell C (ed) (1998) Arundo and saltcedar: the deadly duo. Proceedings, Arundo and Saltcedar Workshop, June 1998, Ontario, CA. University of California Coop Extension Publ:49–52Google Scholar
  5. Bell GP (1997) Ecology and management of Arundo donax, and approaches to riparian habitat restoration in southern California. In: Brock JH, Wade M, Pysek P, Green D (eds) Plant invasions: studies from North America and Europe. Backhuys, Leiden, pp 103–113Google Scholar
  6. Blinn DW, Ruiter DE (2006) Tolerance values of stream caddisflies (Trichoptera) in the lower Colorado River Basin, USA. SW Natur 51:326–337Google Scholar
  7. Boecklen WJ, Price PW, Mopper S (1990) Sex, drugs, and herbivores: sex-based herbivory in Arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis). Ecology 71:581–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bunn SE, Davies PM, Kellaway DM (1997) Contributions of sugarcane and invasive pasture grass to the aquatic food web of a tropical lowland stream. N Z J Mar Freshw Res 48:173–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Busch DE, Smith SD (1995) Mechanisms associated with decline of woody species in riparian ecosystems of the southwestern U.S. Ecol Monogr 65:347–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Canhoto C, Graça MAS (1996) Decomposition of Eucalyptus globulus leaves and three native leaf species (Alnus glutinosa, Castanea sativa and Quercus faginea) in a Portuguese low order stream. Hydrobiologia 333:79–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chattin E (2006) Guide to native and invasive streamside plants. Ventura County Planning Division, Ventura, CAGoogle Scholar
  12. Chauvet E (1987) Changes in the chemical composition of alder, poplar, and willow leaves during decomposition in a river. Hydrobiologia 148:35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chauvet E, Giana N, Gessner MO (1993) Breakdown and invertebrate colonization of leaf litter in two contrasting streams: significance of oligochaetes in a large river. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 50:488–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clapcott JE, Bunn SE (2004) Can C4 plants contribute to aquatic food webs of subtropical streams? Freshw Biol 48:1105–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Collier JK, Winterbourn MJ (1986) Processing of willow leaves in two suburban streams in Christchurch, New Zealand. N Z J Mar Freshw Res 20:575–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cooper SD, Dudley TL, Hemphill N (1986) The biology of chaparral streams in southern California. In: DeVries J (ed) Proc, Chaparral Ecosystem Research Conf., Report No. 62, U.C. Water Res. Center, DavisGoogle Scholar
  17. Cote B, Vogel JF, Dawson JO (1989) Autumnal changes in tissue nitrogen of autumn olive, black alder, and eastern cottonwood. Plant Soil 118:23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cummins KW, Wilzbach MA, Gates DM et al (1989) Shredders and riparian vegetation: leaf litter that falls into streams influences communities of stream invertebrates. Bioscience 39:24–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Douglas MM, O’Connor RA (2003) Effects of the exotic macrophyte, para grass (Urochloa mutica), on benthic and epiphytic macroinvertebrates of a tropical floodplain. Freshw Biol 48:962–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dudley TL (1988) The roles of plant complexity and epiphyton in colonization of macrophytes by stream insects. Verh Int Ver Limnol 23:1153–1158Google Scholar
  21. Dudley TL, Collins B (1995) Biological invasions in California wetlands: the impacts and control of non-indigenous species in natural areas. Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security, Oakland, CAGoogle Scholar
  22. Dudley TL (2000) Arundo donax. In: Bosssard CC, Randall JM, Hoshovsky MC (eds) Invasive plants of California’s wildlands. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 53–58Google Scholar
  23. El-Beheiry MAH, El-Kady HF (1998) Nutritive value of two Tamarix species in Egypt. J Arid Environ 38:529–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Else JA (1996) Post-flood establishment of native woody species and an exotic, Arundo donax, in a southern California riparian system. M.S. thesis, San Diego State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  25. Gaskin JF, Schaal BA (2002) Hybrid Tamarix widespread in U.S. invasion and undetected in native Asian range. Proc Nat Acad Sci 99:11256–11259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Graça MAS (2001) The role of invertebrates in leaf litter decomposition in streams. II. Leaf litter processing and invertebrates. Int Rev Hydrobiol 86:383–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Graça MAS, Cressa C, Gessner MO et al (2001) Food quality, feeding preferences, survival and growth of shredders from temperate and tropical streams. Freshw Biol 46:947–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grafius E, Anderson NH (1980) Population dynamics and role of two species of Lepidostoma (Trichoptera: Lepidostomatidae) in an Oregon coniferous forested stream. Ecology 6:808–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grubbs SA, Cummins KW (1996) Processing and macroinvertebrate colonization of black cherry (Prunus serotina) leaves in two streams summer biota, thermal regime and riparian vegetation. Am Nat 132:284–293Google Scholar
  30. Herbst GN (1982) Effects of leaf type on the consumption rates of aquatic detritivores. Hydrobiologia 89:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Herrera AM, Dudley TL (2003) Reduction of riparian arthropod abundance and diversity as a consequence of giant reed (Arundo donax) invasion. Biol Invasions 5:167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Horton JL, Kolb TE, Hart SC (2001) Responses of riparian trees to interannual variation in groundwater depth in a semi-arid river basin. Plant Cell Environ 24:293–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Irons JG, Oswood MW, Bryant JP (1988) Consumption of leaf detritus by a stream shredder: influence of tree species and nutrient status. Hydrobiologia 160:53–61Google Scholar
  34. Johnson M, Dudley TL, Burns C (2006) Seed production in Arundo donax? Calif Inv Plant Counc News 14:12–13Google Scholar
  35. Kennedy TA, Hobbie SE (2004) Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion alters organic matter dynamics in a desert stream. Freshw Biol 49:65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kennedy TA, Finlay JC, Hobbie SE (2005) Eradication of invasive Tamarix ramosissima along a desert stream increases native fish density. Ecol Appl 15:2072–2083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Khuzhaev VU, Aripova SF (1994) Dynamics of the accumulation of the alkaloids of Arundo donax. Chem Nat Comp 30:637–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kirk A, Widmer T, Campobasso G et al (2003) The potential contribution of natural enemies from Mediterranean Europe to the management of the invasive weed Arundo donax (Graminae; Arundinae). Proc Calif Invasive Plant Counc 7:62–68Google Scholar
  39. Kisner DA (2004) The impact of giant reed (Arundo donax) on the southern California riparian bird community. M.S. thesis, San Diego State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  40. LeRoy CJ, Marks JC (2006) Litter quality, stream characteristics, and litter diversity influence decomposition rates and macroinvertebrates. Freshw Biol 51:605–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Leydecker A (2006) The state of the Ventura River. http://www.stream-team.org/Special/pdffiles/Ventura_2006_Report.pdf, 64 p, Accessed August 2007
  42. Minshall GW (1967) Role of allochthonous detritus in the trophic structure of woodland springbrook community. Ecology 48:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Moline AB, Poff LN (2006) Native and exotic riparian leaf litter as food for aquatic macroinvertebrates: tamarisk, cottonwood, and Russian olive (Abstract). Tamarisk Research Conf, October 2006, Ft. Collins, CO. http://www.weedcenter.org/tamarisk_conf_06/Abstract_Pages/Moline_abstract.pdf
  44. Motomori K, Mitsuhashi H, Kakano S (2001) Influence of leaf litter quality on the colonization and consumption of stream invertebrate shredders. Ecol Res 16:173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Naeem S, Thompson LJ, Lawler SP et al (1994) Declining biodiversity can alter the performance of ecosystems. Nature 368:734–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Neill B (2002) Survey of non-native plants, primarily Arundo donax, along the Los Angeles River and its tributaries. http://www.lasgrwc.org/publications/WeedReport.pdf, Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers Watershed Council, Accessed August 2007
  47. Neto CP, Seca AM, Nunes MA et al (1997) Variations in chemical compositions and structure of macromolecule components in different morphological regions and maturity stages of Arundo donax. Ind Crops Prod 6:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Niyogi DK, Simon KS, Townsend CR (2003) Breakdown of tussock grass in streams along a gradient of agricultural development in New Zealand. Freshw Biol 48:1698–1708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Palo RT (1984) Distribution of birch (Betula spp.), willow (Salix spp.) and poplar (Populus spp.) secondary metabolites and their potential role as chemical defense against herbivores. J Chem Ecol 10:499–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pomeroy KE, Shannon JP, Blinn DW (2000) Leaf breakdown in a regulated desert river: Colorado River, Arizona, USA. Hydrobiologia 434:193–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pozo J, Basaguren A, Eloseguiet A et al (1998) Afforestation with Eucalyptus globulus and leaf litter decomposition in streams of northern Spain. Hydrobiologia 373/374:101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Read MG, Barmuta LA (1999) Comparisons of benthic communities adjacent to riparian native eucalypt and introduced willow vegetation. Freshw Biol 42:359–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Robinson TH, Leydecker A, Melack JM, Keller AA (2002) Nutrient concentrations in Southern Californian streams related to landuse. In: Lesnik JR (ed) Coastal water res. American Water Resources Assoc, Middleburg, VA, TPS-02-1, pp 339–343Google Scholar
  54. Rodriguez-Barrueco C, Miguel C, Subramaniam P (1984) Seasonal fluctuations of the mineral concentration of alder (Alnus gluttinosa (L) Gaertn.) from the field. Plant Soil 78:201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rouget M, Richardson DM, Nel JL et al (2004) Mapping the potential ranges of major plant invaders in South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland using climatic suitability. Divers Distrib 10:475–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sampaio A, Cortes R, Leao C (2001) Invertebrate and microbial colonization in native and exotic leaf litter species in a mountain stream VI. Decomposition of different leaf species. Int Rev Hydrobiol 86:527–540Google Scholar
  57. Shafroth PB, Cleverly JR, Dudley TL et al (2005) Control of Tamarix in the western US: implications for water salvage, wildlife use, and riparian restoration. Environ Manage 35:231–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schulze DJ, Walker KF (1997) Riparian eucalypts and willows and their significance for aquatic invertebrates in the River Murray, South Australia. Reg Rivers Res Manage 13:557–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Swan CM, Palmer MA (2006) Composition of speciose leaf litter alters stream detritivore growth, feeding activity and leaf breakdown. Oecologia 147:469–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tibbets TM, Molles MC (2005) C:N:P stoichiometry of dominant riparian trees and arthropods along the Middle Rio Grande. Freshw Biol 50:1882–1894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vitousek PM (1990) Biological invasions and ecosystem processes: towards an integration of population biology and ecosystem studies. Oikos 57:7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wallace JB, Eggert SL, Meyer JL, Webster JR (1999) Effects of resource limitation in a detrital-based ecosystem. Ecol Monogr 69:409–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wiggins GB (1996) Larvae of the North American caddisfly genera (Trichoptera), 2nd edn. University of Toronto Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  64. Wynd FL, Steinbauer GP, Diaz NR (1948) Arundo donax as forage grass in sandy soils. Lloydia 11:181–184Google Scholar
  65. Yeates LV, Barmuta LA (1999) The effects of willow and eucalypt leaves on feeding preference and growth of some Australian aquatic macroinvertebrates. Aust J Ecol 24:593–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Marine Science InstituteUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.Graduate Group in EcologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations