Enhancing the production of phenolic compounds during barley germination by using chitooligosaccharides to improve the antioxidant capacity of malt
To enhance the production of phenolic compounds during barley germination using chitooligosaccharide as an elicitor to improve the antioxidant capacity of malt.
When used as an elicitor for barley germination, chitooligosaccharide with a molecular weight of 3 kDa, added at 10 mg/kg barley kernels during the first steeping cycle, led to the maximum production of phenolic compounds. Compared with the control with no chitooligosaccharide added to the steeping water, the total phenolic content was increased by 54.8%. Increases in the total phenolic content of the barley malt occurred when chitooligosaccharide was applied during the first or both the first and the second steeping cycles. Thus the antioxidant capacity of barley malt was increased significantly by adding chitooligosaccharide during the steeping process.
Applying chitooligosaccharides during the steeping process increased the content of phenolic compounds thus improving the antioxidant capacity of the barley malt.
KeywordsAntioxidant capacity Barley Chitooligosaccharide Elicitor Malt Phenolic compound
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31771907) and the Creative and Innovative Project for High-level Researchers of Dalian (2016RQ059).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Aron PM, Shellammer TH (2010) A discussion of polyphenols in beer physical and flavor stability. J Inst Brew 12:46–50Google Scholar
- Dabina-Bicka I, Karklina D, Kruma Z, Dimins F (2013) Bioactive compounds in latvian beer. Proc Latv Univ Agr 30:35–42Google Scholar
- Hameed A, Sheikh MA, Hameed A, Farooq T, Basra SMA, Jamil A (2013) Chitosan priming enhances the seed germination, antioxidants, hydrolytic enzymes, soluble proteins and sugars in wheat seeds. Agrochimica 67:32–46Google Scholar
- Ondrejovič M, Maliar T, Polívka L, Šilhár S (2009) Polyfenoly jabĺk. Chem Listy 103:394–400Google Scholar
- Yarullina LG, Kasimova RI, Akhatova AR (2014) Activity of protective proteins in wheat plants treated with chitooligosaccharides with different degree of acetylation and infection with Bipolaris sorokiniana. Appl Biochem Biotech 50:524–530Google Scholar