Improved properties of bone and cartilage tissue from 3D inkjet-bioprinted human mesenchymal stem cells by simultaneous deposition and photocrosslinking in PEG-GelMA
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Bioprinting of bone and cartilage suffers from low mechanical properties. Here we have developed a unique inkjet bioprinting approach of creating mechanically strong bone and cartilage tissue constructs using poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate, gelatin methacrylate, and human MSCs.
The printed hMSCs were evenly distributed in the polymerized PEG-GelMA scaffold during layer-by-layer assembly. The procedure showed a good biocompatibility with >80% of the cells surviving the printing process and the resulting constructs provided strong mechanical support to the embedded cells. The printed mesenchymal stem cells showed an excellent osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation capacity. Both osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation as determined by specific gene and protein expression analysis (RUNX2, SP7, DLX5, ALPL, Col1A1, IBSP, BGLAP, SPP1, Col10A1, MMP13, SOX9, Col2A1, ACAN) was improved by PEG-GelMA in comparison to PEG alone. These observations were consistent with the histological evaluation.
Inkjet bioprinted-hMSCs in simultaneously photocrosslinked PEG-GelMA hydrogel scaffolds demonstrated an improvement of mechanical properties and osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation, suggesting its promising potential for usage in bone and cartilage tissue engineering.
KeywordsBone Cartilage Hydrogel Inkjet bioprinting Mesenchymal stem cells Photopolymerization
The authors would like to acknowledge M.G. Finn, Kurt Breitenkamp, Lilo Creighton, Vivian Lee, Taylor Dorsey, and Diana Kim for constructive suggestions and technical support. This work was funded by New York Capital Region Research Alliance Grant, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (WUT: 2015IB004), NSF 1011796, and Stemorgan Therapeutics R&D support (TERM002). The authors have no financial or commercial conflict of interest to declare.
Supplementary Table 1—Engineering parameters of a modified HP DeskJet 500 printer and mass swelling ratio (Q) and equilibrium water content (M) of printed 10 % w/v PEGDMA (PEG), and 10 % w/v PEG with 1.5 % w/v GelMA (PEG-GelMA) (n = 3).