Mining metagenomes for novel cellulase genes
Cellulases hydrolyze the β-1,4 linkages of cellulose and are widely used in food, brewing and wine, animal feed, textiles and laundry, and pulp and paper industries, especially for hydrolyzing cellulosic materials into sugars, which can be fermented to produce useful products such as ethanol. Metagenomics has become an alternative approach to conventional culture-dependent methods as it allows exhaustive mining of microbial genomes in their natural environments. This review covers the current state of research and challenges in mining novel cellulase genes from the metagenomes of various environments, and discusses the potential biotechnological applications of metagenome-derived cellulases.
KeywordsBiotechnological applications Cellulase Function-based approach Metagenomics Sequencing
- Brulc JM, Antonopoulos DA, Miller ME, Wilson MK, Yannarell AC, Dinsdale EA, Edwards RE, Frank ED, Emerson JB, Wacklin P, Coutinho PM, Henrissat B, Nelson KE, White BA (2009) Gene-centric metagenomics of the fiber-adherent bovine rumen microbiome reveals forage specific glycoside hydrolases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:1948–1953CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ferrer M, Golyshina OV, Chernikova TN, Khachane AN, Reyes-Duarte D, Santos VA, Strompl C, Elborough K, Jarvis G, Neef A, Yakimov MM, Timmis KN, Golyshin PN (2005) Novel hydrolase diversity retrieved from a metagenome library of bovine rumen microflora. Environ Microbiol 7:1996–2010CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Palackal N, Lyon CS, Zaidi S, Luginbuhl P, Dupree P, Goubet F, Macomber JL, Short JM, Hazlewood GP, Robertson DE, Steer BA (2007) A multifunctional hybrid glycosyl hydrolase discovered in an uncultured microbial consortium from ruminant gut. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 74:113–124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Todaka N, Moriya S, Saita K, Hondo T, Kiuchi I, Takasu H, Ohkuma M, Piero C, Hayashizaki Y, Kudo T (2007) Environmental cDNA analysis of the genes involved in lignocellulose digestion in the symbiotic protist community of Reticulitermes speratus. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 59:592–599CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar