Beneficial bacteria of agricultural importance
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The rhizosphere is the soil–plant root interphase and in practice consists of the soil adhering to the root besides the loose soil surrounding it. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are potential agents for the biological control of plant pathogens. A biocontrol strain should be able to protect the host plant from pathogens and fulfill the requirement for strong colonization. Numerous compounds that are toxic to pathogens, such as HCN, phenazines, pyrrolnitrin, and pyoluteorin as well as, other enzymes, antibiotics, metabolites and phytohormones are the means by which PGPR act, just as quorum sensing and chemotaxis which are vital for rhizosphere competence and colonization. The presence of root exudates has a pronounced effect on the rhizosphere where they serve as an energy source, promoting growth and influencing the root system for the rhizobacteria. In certain instances they have products that inhibit the growth of soil-borne pathogens to the advantage of the plant root. A major source of concern is reproducibility in the field due to the complex interaction between the plant (plant species), microbe and the environment (soil fertility and moisture, day length, light intensity, length of growing season, and temperature). This review listed most of the documented PGPR genera and discussed their exploitation.