Biotechnology Letters

, Volume 32, Issue 10, pp 1523–1527

Biotechnology of morel mushrooms: successful fruiting body formation and development in a soilless system

Original Research Paper

Abstract

Morchella spp. ascocarps (morels) are some of the world’s most sought-after mushrooms. Successful cultivation of morels is still a rare and difficult task despite over 100 years of effort. Here we provide the first report of successful Morchellarufobrunnea fruiting body initiation and development in laboratory-scale experiments. Mushroom initials appeared 2 to 4 weeks after first watering of pre-grown sclerotia incubated at 16 to 22°C and 90% humidity. Mature fruiting bodies reached 7 to 15 cm in length and were obtained after the five morphological developmental stages of this Morchella species: sclerotium formation, scelerotium germination, asexual spore formation, formation of initial knots and development of the fruiting body.

Keywords

Fruiting body Morchella rufobrunnea Morel Morphological development Mushroom cultivation Soilless culture 

References

  1. Amir R, Levanon D, Hadar Y, Chet I (1995) Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta. Exp Mycol 19:61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boudier E (1897) Révision analytique des morilles de France (Taxonomic revision of the morels of France). Bulletin de la Société Mycologique de France (Bull French Mycol Soc) 13:129–153Google Scholar
  3. Carluccio A (1989) A passion for mushrooms. Salem House Publishers, TopsfieldGoogle Scholar
  4. Constantin J (1936) La culture de la morille et sa forme conidienne (Morel culture and its conidial form). Ann Sci Nat Bot Ser 10:111–129 (in French)Google Scholar
  5. Gessner RV (1995) Genetics and systematics of North American populations of Morchella. Can J Bot 73(Suppl 1):S967–S971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Guzman G, Tapia F (1998) The known morels in Mexico, a description of a new blushing species, Morchella rufobrunnea, and new data on M. guatemalensis. Mycology 90:705–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Isildak O, Turkekul I, Elmastas M, Tuzen M (2004) Analysis of heavy metals in some wild-grown edible mushrooms from the middle Black Sea region, Turkey. Food Chem 86:547–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kuo M (2008) Morchella tomentosa, a new species from western North America, and notes on M. rufobrunnea. Mycotaxon 105:441–446Google Scholar
  9. Masaphy S (2005) External ultrastructure of fruit body initiation of Morchella spp. Mycol Res 109:508–512CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Masaphy S, Zabari L, Goldberg D (2009) New long season ecotype of Morchella rufobrunnea from Northern Israel. Mycol Apl 21:45–55Google Scholar
  11. Miller SL, Pilar T, McClean TM (1994) Persistence of basidiospores and sclerotia of ectomycorrhizal fungi and Morchella in soil. Mycologia 86:89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ower R (1982) Notes on the development of the morel ascocarp. Mycologia 74:142–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ower R, Mills G, Malachowski J (1986) Cultivation of Morchella. U.S. Patent No 4,594,809Google Scholar
  14. Pilz D, McLain R, Alexander S, Villareal-Ruiz L, Berch S, Wurtz T, Parks C, Mark E, McFarlen E, Baker B, Molina R, Smith JE (2007) Ecology and management of morels harvested from the forests of western North America. USDA General Technical Report, Portland, OR. http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/publications/gtr710/
  15. Roze ME (1882) Adherence de la base d’appareils ascospores de Morchella sur Helianthus tuberosus. Bull Soc Bot Fr 19:166–167Google Scholar
  16. Shavit E (2008) Arsenic in morels: morels collected in New Jersey apple orchards blamed for arsenic poisoning. Fungi 1:8–16Google Scholar
  17. Twengström E, Köpmans E, Sigvald R, Svensson C (1998) Influence of different irrigation regimes on carpogenic germination of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. J Phytopathol 146:487–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Volk TJ, Leonard TJ (1989) Physiological and environmental studies of sclerotium formation and maturation in Morchella. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:3095–3100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Volk TJ, Leonard TJ (1990) Cytology of the life cycle of Morchella. Mycol Res 94:399–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Weber NS (1995) A morel hunter’s companion: a guide to the true and false morels. Thunder Bay Press, HoltGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Applied Microbiology and Mycology DepartmentMIGALKiryat ShmonaIsrael
  2. 2.Tel Hai Academic CollegeUpper GalileeIsrael

Personalised recommendations