Biotechnology Letters

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 305–314 | Cite as

Fungal endophytes-induced abscisic acid is required for flavonoid accumulation in suspension cells of Ginkgo biloba

  • Gangping HaoEmail author
  • Xihua Du
  • Faxing Zhao
  • Haiwei Ji
Original Research Paper


Treatment of suspension cells of Ginkgo biloba with fungal endophytes resulted in accumulation of flavonoids, increased abscisic acid (ABA) production and activation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, was effective in inhibiting fungal endophytes-induced ABA biosynthesis, increase of PAL activity and flavonoids accumulation. Moreover, exogenous application of ABA enhanced PAL activity and increased accumulation of flavonoids in G. biloba cells with or without fungal endophytes elicitor. These finding suggest a causal relationship between ABA release and both PAL activity and flavonoid accumulation under fungal endophytes treatment and that ABA is involved in fungal endophytes-induced flavonoids accumulation in this plant.


Abscisic acid Flavonoid biosynthesis Fungal endophytes Ginkgo biloba Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 



This work is supported by the research fund for the doctoral degree scholars of Taishan Medical University (No. 2005-04).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gangping Hao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xihua Du
    • 2
  • Faxing Zhao
    • 3
  • Haiwei Ji
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryTaishan Medical UniversityTai’anPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Life SciencesShandong Normal UniversityJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of PharmacyJiangxi College of Traditional Chinese MedicalFuzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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