Hyaluronic acid: a natural biopolymer with a broad range of biomedical and industrial applications
- 7.7k Downloads
Hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan, HA) is a linear polysaccharide formed from disaccharide units containing N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and glucuronic acid. It has a high molecular mass, usually in the order of millions of Daltons, and interesting viscoelastic properties influenced by its polymeric and polyelectrolyte characteristics. HA is present in almost all biological fluids and tissues. In clinical medicine, it is used as a diagnostic marker for many diseases including cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and liver pathologies, as well as for supplementation of impaired synovial fluid in arthritic patients by means of intra-articular injections. It is also used in certain ophthalmological and otological surgeries and cosmetic regeneration and reconstruction of soft tissue. Herein we present an overview of the occurrence and physiological properties of HA, as well as of the recent advances in production biotechnology and preparation of the HA-based materials for medical application.
KeywordsArthritis Degradation Hyaluronan Reactive oxygen species Tissue regeneration Viscosity
This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-51-033205 and Agency for Science VEGA of the Slovak Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Education of Slovak Republic, grants 1/4452/07, 2/4143/26, and 2/5002/5, and by Center of Excellence CEDEBIPO of the Slovak Academy of Sciences.
- Balazs EA (2004) Viscoelastic properties of hyaluronan and its therapeutic use. In: Garg HG, Hales CA (eds) Chemistry and biology of hyaluronan. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 415Google Scholar
- Evanko S, Wight T (2001) Intracellular hyaluronan. In: Hyaluronan: synthesis, function, catabolism. Available at http://www.glycoforum.gr.jp/science/hyaluronan/HA20/HA20E.html. Cited 30 Jul 2001
- Garg HG, Hales CA (eds) (2004) Chemistry and biology of hyaluronan. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Kogan G, Šoltés L, Stern R, Schiller J, Mendichi R (2006) Hyaluronic acid: its function and degradation in in vivo systems. In: Atta-ur-Rahman (ed) Studies in natural products chemistry (vol 35, Bioactive natural products, Part D). Elsevier, Amsterdam (in press)Google Scholar
- Laurent TC (1998) The chemistry, biology and medical applications of hyaluronan and its derivatives. Portland Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Manna F, Dentini M, Desideri P, De Pitá O, Mortilla E, Maras B (1999) Comparative chemical evaluation of two commercially available derivatives of hyaluronic acid (Hylaform® from rooster combs and Restylane® from Streptococcus) used for soft tissue augmentation. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 13:183–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moseley R, Walker M, Waddington RJ, Chen WYJ (2003) Comparison of the antioxidant properties of wound dressing materials—carboxymethylcellulose, hyaluronan benzyl ester and hyaluronan, towards polymorphonuclear leukocyte-derived reactive oxygen species. Biomaterials 24:1549–1557CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Prehm P (2000) Hyaluronan. In: Vandamme EJ, De Baets S, Steinbüchel A (eds) Biopolymers: biology, chemistry, biotechnology, applications, vol 5, Polysaccharides I. Polysaccharides from prokaryotes. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 379–404Google Scholar