Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Analysis of Three Deep-Sea Amphipod Species from Geographically Isolated Hadal Trenches in the Pacific Ocean
- 1 Downloads
Amphipods of the superfamily Lysianassoidea that inhabit the hadal zone ( > 6000 m) have large bathymetric ranges and play a key role in deep ocean ecosystems. The endemism of these amphipod species makes them a good model for investigating potent natural selection and restricted dispersal in deep ocean trenches. Here, we describe genetic diversity and intraspecific population differentiation among three amphipod species from four Pacific trenches based on a mtDNA concatenated dataset (CO Ι and 16S rRNA genes) from 150 amphipod individuals. All amphipod populations had low genetic diversity, as indicated by haplotype and nucleotide diversity values. Population geographic relationship analysis of two Alicella gigantea populations revealed no genetic differentiation between these two localities (pairwise genetic differentiation coefficient = 0.00032, gene flow = 784.58), and the major variation (99.97%) was derived from variation within the populations. Historical demographic events were investigated using Tajima’s D and Fu’s F neutrality tests and analysis of mismatch distribution. Consistent results provided strong evidence to support the premise that demographic expansion occurred only for the Mariana population of Hirondellea gigas, possibly within the last 2.1–3.4 million years. These findings suggest that the formation of amphipod population structure might be the result of multiple factors including high hydrostatic pressure, food distribution, trench topographic forcing and potential ecological interactions.
KeywordsHadal zone Hadal amphipod Genetic diversity Population structure
We would like to thank all of the people for the sample collection. This work was supported in part by the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2018YFC0310600), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31572598), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31772826) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31572611).
- Fu YX (1997) Statistical tests of neutrality of mutations against population growth, hitchhiking and background selection. Genetics 147:915–925Google Scholar
- Harpending HC (1994) Signature of ancient population growth in a low-resolution mitochondrial DNA mismatch distribution. Hum Biol 66:591–600Google Scholar
- Ichino MC, Clark MR, Drazen JC, Jamieson AJ, Jones DOB, Martin AP, Rowden AA, Shank TM, Yancey PH, Ruhl HA (2015) The distribution of benthic biomass in hadal trenches: a modelling approach to investigate the effect of vertical and lateral organic matter transport to the seafloor. Deep Sea Res Part I 3:1–49Google Scholar
- Linley TD, Stewart A, McMillan P, Clark M, Gerringer ME, Drazen JC, Fujii T, Jamieson AJ (2017) Bait attendingfishes of the abyssal zone and hadal boundary: community structure, functional groups and species distribution in the Kermadec, New Hebrides and Mariana trenches. Deep Sea Res Part I 121:38–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rex M, Etter R (2010) Deep-sea biodiversity: pattern and scale. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Rogers AR, Harpending H (1992) Population growthmakes waves in the distribution of pairwise genetic differences. Mol Biol Evol 9:552–569Google Scholar
- Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425Google Scholar
- Stern R (2002) Subduction zones. Rev Geophys 40:1–3.Google Scholar
- Swofford DL (2003) PAUP*: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (* and other methods), version 4.0b10. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
- Tajima F (1989) Statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis by DNA polymorphism. Genetics 123:585–595Google Scholar
- Wright S (1978) Evolution and the genetics of populations, vol 4. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar