Variant Ionotropic Receptors are Expressed in the Antennae of Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae)
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Mosquitoes transmit many harmful diseases that seriously threaten public health. The mosquito’s olfactory system is of great significance for host selection. Inotropic receptors (IRs) and olfactory receptors (ORs) have been demonstrated to be capable of odorant molecular recognition. Analyzing the molecular principles of mosquito olfaction facilitates the development of prevention and therapy techniques. Advances in the understanding of IRs have been seriously inadequate compared to those of ORs. Here, we provide evidence that 35 Anopheles sinensis IR (AsIR) genes are expressed, 7 of which are in the antennae and 2 have expression levels that are upregulated with a blood meal. A homologous analysis of the sequences showed that AsIRs are a subfamily of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGLURs). This is the first that time IRs have been identified in Anopheles sinensis in vitro. The ultrastructure of the antennae supports the theory that diverse sensilla are distributed in the antennae. The results here may facilitate the revelation of the regulation mechanism in AsIRs, which could mitigate the transmission of diseases by mosquitoes.
KeywordsAnopheles sinensis Disease Ionotropic receptor Mosquito Olfactory system
We thank the Center for Disease Control of Hunan Province (China) for their technical guidance and assistance. We thank the Institutional Review Board of National University of Defense Technology for the approval of all animal procedures.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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