Biochemical Genetics

, Volume 54, Issue 3, pp 249–269 | Cite as

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Inferring Phylogenetic Relationships of Indian Citron (Citrus medica L.) based on rbcL and matK Sequences of Chloroplast DNA

  • Ajit Uchoi
  • Surendra Kumar MalikEmail author
  • Ravish Choudhary
  • Susheel Kumar
  • M. R. Rohini
  • Digvender Pal
  • Sezai Ercisli
  • Rekha Chaudhury
Original Article


Phylogenetic relationships of Indian Citron (Citrus medica L.) with other important Citrus species have been inferred through sequence analyses of rbcL and matK gene region of chloroplast DNA. The study was based on 23 accessions of Citrus genotypes representing 15 taxa of Indian Citrus, collected from wild, semi-wild, and domesticated stocks. The phylogeny was inferred using the maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods. Both MP and NJ trees separated all the 23 accessions of Citrus into five distinct clusters. The chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) analysis based on rbcL and matK sequence data carried out in Indian taxa of Citrus was useful in differentiating all the true species and species/varieties of probable hybrid origin in distinct clusters or groups. Sequence analysis based on rbcL and matK gene provided unambiguous identification and disposition of true species like C. maxima, C. medica, C. reticulata, and related hybrids/cultivars. The separation of C. maxima, C. medica, and C. reticulata in distinct clusters or sub-clusters supports their distinctiveness as the basic species of edible Citrus. However, the cpDNA sequence analysis of rbcL and matK gene could not find any clear cut differentiation between subgenera Citrus and Papeda as proposed in Swingle’s system of classification.


Citrus cpDNA matK Maximum parsimony Neighbor-joining Phylogeny rbcL 



The authors are grateful to Director, NBPGR and Head, Exploration and Collection Division, NBPGR, New Delhi for encouragement and support. The authors thank the officers and staff of forest departments and ICAR institutes/centres in Northeast India for assistance and support during exploration and survey trips. The authors are also thankful to Post Graduate School, IARI and University Grant Commission for awarding Doctorate Fellowship.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ajit Uchoi
    • 1
  • Surendra Kumar Malik
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ravish Choudhary
    • 1
  • Susheel Kumar
    • 3
  • M. R. Rohini
    • 1
  • Digvender Pal
    • 1
  • Sezai Ercisli
    • 4
  • Rekha Chaudhury
    • 2
  1. 1.Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Tissue Culture and Cryopreservation UnitNational Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR)New DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Rubber Board OfficeGajapatiIndia
  4. 4.Faculty of Agriculture, Department of HorticultureAtaturk UniversityErzurumTurkey

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