Biochemical Genetics

, 47:892 | Cite as

Necessity of Quantum Coherence to Account for the Spectrum of Time-Dependent Mutations Exhibited by Bacteriophage T4

  • W. Grant CooperEmail author


Transcriptase measurements of quantum expectations due to time-dependent coherent states populating informational DNA base-pair sites, designated by G–C → *G–*C, G–C → G′–C′, and A–T → *A–*T, provide a model for transcription and replication of time-dependent DNA lesions exhibited by bacteriophage T4. Coherent states are introduced as consequences of hydrogen bond arrangement, keto-amino → enol-imine, where product protons are shared between two sets of indistinguishable electron lone-pairs and thus participate in coupled quantum oscillations at frequencies of ~1013 s−1. The transcriptase deciphers and executes genetic specificity instructions by implementing measurements on superposition proton states at *G–*C, G′–C′, and *A–*T sites in an interval Δt ≪ 10−13 s. Decohered states participate in Topal–Fresco replication, which introduces substitutions *C → T, *G → A, G′ → T, and G′ → C, but superposition *A–*T states are deleted. These results imply an evolutionary shift favoring A–T richness.


Molecular evolution mechanism Transcription enhancement of mutation Transcriptase quantum processing Coherent states in DNA Entanglement Replication T4 phage genetics 



Insightful questions and discussions by Altonie Barber and Nikolay Sarychev are sincerely appreciated. I am grateful to an anonymous reviewer for calling my attention to an important reference and for identifying quantum coherence and decoherence as central issues in this report.

Supplementary material

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(DOC 33 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Physics Health and Energy, Inc.LubbockUSA

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