Biochemical Genetics

, 47:860 | Cite as

Two Sympatric Phylogroups of the Chinese Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis) Identified by Mitochondrial DNA Control Region and Cytochrome b Gene Analyses

  • Hung Sun Koh
  • Bae Keun Lee
  • Jinxing Wang
  • Seon Wook Heo
  • Kyung Hee Jang
Article

Abstract

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (927 bp) and cytochrome b gene (1,140 bp) sequences of the Chinese water deer (Hydropotes inermis) from China and Korea were obtained to examine the taxonomic status of two subspecies, H. i. inermis from China and H. i. argyropus from Korea. Two sympatric mtDNA clades (a major clade from China and Korea and a minor clade from Korea) with an average genetic distance of 2.1% in the control region and 1.3% in the cytochrome b gene were detected. These findings are not consistent with the current classification by pelage color. We propose a reconsideration of the validity of the subspecies designation by the statistical comparison of morphological characters including body color. The major common mtDNA phylogroup in the two allopatric subspecies could be explained by the contiguous distribution of the Chinese water deer from east China to Korea until recent years. The restriction in the range and number of the Chinese subspecies after the last glacier might have caused the disappearance of the minor phylogroup in China. The taxonomic status of the two groups in Korea should be clarified using nuclear DNA marker analyses as well as morphological characters including pelage color.

Keywords

Hydropotes inermis China and Korea Sympatric phylogroups 

References

  1. Avise JC, Walker D (1999) Species realities and numbers in sexual vertebrates: perspectives from an asexual transmitted genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:992–995CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker RJ, Bradley RD (2006) Speciation in mammals and the genetic species concept. J Mammal 87:643–662CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bradley RD, Baker RJ (2001) A test of the genetic species concept: cytochrome b sequences and mammals. J Mammal 82:960–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chung CH (2007) Vegetation response to climate change on Jeju Island, South Korea, during the last deglaciation based on pollen record. Geosci J 11:147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cooke A, Farrell L (1998) Chinese water deer. Mammal Society Publication, SP Press, Somerset, p 31Google Scholar
  6. Corbet GB (1978) The mammals of the Palaearctic region: a taxonomic review. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.). Cornell Univ. Press, London, p 303Google Scholar
  7. Dillon MC, Wright JW (1993) Nucleotide sequence of the D-loop region of the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) mitochondrial genome. Mol Biol Evol 10:296–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gonzalez-Cozatl, FX (1999) Molecular systematics of the genus Lepus in North America. Ph. D. Dissertation, Brigham Young Univ., Ann Arbor, p 68Google Scholar
  9. Grubb P (2005) Order Artiodactyla. In: Wilson EE, Reeder DM (eds) Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic references. Smithsonian Institution Press, New York, pp 637–722Google Scholar
  10. Hedrick PW (2001) Conservation genetics: where are we now? Trends Ecol Evol 16:629–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mayr E, Ashlock PD (1991) Principles of systematic zoology. McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, p 475Google Scholar
  12. Nowak RM (1999) Walker’s mammals of the world, 6th edn. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, London, pp 1093–1094Google Scholar
  13. Quicke DJL (1993) Principles and techniques of contemporary taxonomy. Blakie Academic & Professional Co, London, p 311Google Scholar
  14. Randi E, Pierpaoli M, Danilkin A (1998) Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in populations of Siberian and European roe deer (Capreolus pygargus and C. capreolus). Heredity 80:429–437CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Tamura K, Nei M (1993) Estimation of the number of nucleotide substitutions in the control region of mitochondrial DNA in humans and chimpanzees. Mol Biol Evol 10:512–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Tate GHH (1940) Mammals of Eastern Asia. MacMillan Co., New York, p 331Google Scholar
  17. Wilson AC, Cann RL, George SM, Gyllensten UB, Helm-Bychowski KM (1985) Mitochondrial DNA and two perspectives on evolutionary genetics. Biol J Linn Soc 26:375–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hung Sun Koh
    • 1
  • Bae Keun Lee
    • 1
  • Jinxing Wang
    • 2
  • Seon Wook Heo
    • 1
  • Kyung Hee Jang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyChungbuk UniversityCheongjuKorea
  2. 2.Department of BiologyShandong UniversityJinanChina

Personalised recommendations