Allozyme Variability and Phylogenetic Relationships in Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apis mellifera) Populations From Greece and Cyprus
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Ten gene enzymic systems (α-GPDH, AO, MDH, ADH, LAP, SOD, ALP, ACPH, ME, and EST), corresponding to 12 genetic loci, were assayed from five Greek populations representing three subspecies of Apis mellifera, A. m. cecropia (Pthiotida, Kythira), A. m. macedonica (Macedonia), and the “Aegean race” of A. mellifera, which is supposed to be very similar to A. m. adami (Ikaria, Kasos), as well as a population from Cypus (A. m. cypria). ADH∗-1, ADH∗-2, and LAP∗ electrophoretic patterns discriminate the Cyprus population from the Greek populations. MDH∗-1, EST∗-3, SOD∗, ALP∗, and ME∗ loci were found to be polymorphic in almost all populations. The observed heterozygosity was found to range from 0.066 to 0.251. Allele frequencies of all loci were used to estimate Nei's genetic distance, which was found to range between 0.011 and 0.413 among the populations studied. UPGMA and neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees obtained by genetic distance matrix methods, as well as a Wagner tree based on the discrete character parsimony method, support the hypothesis that the most distant population is that from Cyprus. Our allozymic data support A. m. cypria as a distinct subspecies, but there was no allozymic support for the distinction of the other subspecies existing in Greece.
KeywordsApis mellifera genetic structure allozymes phylogenetic relationships Greece Cyprus
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