Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 52, Issue 6, pp 383–386 | Cite as

Application of Tetrapolar Electrode Systems in Electrical Impedance Measurements

  • A. V. KobelevEmail author
  • S. I. Shchukin
  • S. Leonhardt

The specifics of using tetrapolar electrode systems for a wide class of electrical impedance measurements are discussed. The key factors affecting the error in solving the inverse electrical impedance problem using a tetrapolar electrode system are determined.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Schookin, S. I. et al., “Multi-channel impedance technology for mapping and monitoring of cardioactivity,” in: BioMedical Engineering and Informatics: New Development and the Future. Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on BioMedical Engineering and Informatics BMEI 2008, Vol. 2, 173-177 (2008).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rutkove, S. B., “Electrical impedance myography: Background, current state, and future directions,” Muscle and Nerve, 40, 936-946 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Holder, D. S., Electrical Impedance Tomography Methods, History and Applications, IOP Publishing (2005).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grimnes, S., Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Basics, Elsevier (2015).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Togawa, T., Biomedical Sensors and Instruments, CRC Press (2011).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zaborovskii, A. I., Electrical Prospecting [in Russian], GNTI NGTA, Moscow (1963).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ben Ishai, P., Talary, M. S., Caduff, A., Levy, E., and Feldman, Y., “Electrode polarization in dielectric measurements: A review,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 24, No. 10, 102001 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schwan, H. P., “Determination of biological impedances,” in: Physical Techniques in Biological Research, Academic Press, New York (1963), pp. 323-407.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schwan, H. P., “Linear and nonlinear electrode polarization and biological materials,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 20, No. 3, 269-288 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schwan, H. P., “Alternating current electrode polarization,” Biophysik, 3, No. 2, 181-201 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bauman Moscow State Technical UniversityMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule AachenAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations