Effect of host feeding on life history traits of Tamarixia radiata, parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri
The parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is being used for the biological control of the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). The parasitoid is strongly synovigenic, as it is born with very few mature eggs. Synovigenic insects need to feed on host haemolymph to mature additional eggs, and are able to resorb mature eggs to allocate resources toward maintenance. We investigated the effect of host feeding on parasitism, longevity and egg load dynamics, and estimated egg maturation and resorption rates. Although host feeding does not increase survival or longevity, it results in increased parasitization rates when parasitoids are seven days old, and that a single host meal leads to an average gain of three eggs. We discuss the importance of these data to predict the foraging and parasitization behavior of T. radiata in the field, and to potentially improve current efforts to control ACP.
KeywordsCitrus Eulophidae Hemiptera Hymenoptera Liviidae Synovigeny
Authors are thankful to Josep Anton Jaques Miret and two reviewers for their helpful comments, and to Nickolas Moreno for providing T. radiata. The study was funded by USDA APHIS grants no. 15-8130-0309-CA and 17-8130-0306-CA, Citrus Research Board Grant CRB 17-5500-196, and USDA NIFA Hatch fund 194617.
- Bové JM (2006) Huanglongbing: a destructive, newly-emerging, century-old disease of citrus. J Plant Pathol 88:7–37Google Scholar
- Chu YI, Chien CC (1991) Utilization of natural enemies to control psyllid vectors transmitting citrus greening. Integrated control of plant virus diseases. In: Proceedings of International Workshop on TARI. Taichung, Taiwan, pp 135–145Google Scholar
- Hoddle MS, Hoddle CD (2013) Classical biological control of Asian citrus psyllid with Tamarixia radiata in urban Southern California. Citrograph 4:52–58Google Scholar
- Mills NJ, Wajnberg E (2008) Optimal foraging behaviour and efficient biological control methods. In: Wajnberg E, Bernstein C, van Alphen JJM (eds) Behavioural ecology of insect parasitoids: From theoretical approaches to field applications. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 3–30Google Scholar
- R Core Team (2018) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.r-project.org/
- Rivero A, West SA (2002) The physiological costs of being small in a parasitic wasp. Evol Ecol Res 4:407–420Google Scholar
- Soper A, Hare J, Whitman T, Manzo D, Stouthamer R (2014) Preserving genetic variability in mass-rearing Tamarixia radiata to control ACP. Citrograph (Fall) :58–83Google Scholar