Advertisement

BioControl

, Volume 64, Issue 1, pp 43–54 | Cite as

Adequacy of Drosophila melanogaster as prey for the development and reproduction of Coleomegilla maculata

  • Halina Schultz
  • Eduardo da Silva
  • Elen de Lima Aguiar-MenezesEmail author
  • André Luis Santos Resende
  • Janaina Ribeiro Costa Rouws
  • Ana Rafaela Moreira da Silva
Article
  • 73 Downloads

Abstract

Factitious prey are preferentially used to rear lady beetles in the laboratory in lieu of natural prey with an aim towards facilitating and lowering the cost of producing these predators. We tested the hypothesis that live dipteran larvae of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (factitious prey) meet the nutritional requirements of the coleopteran Coleomegilla maculata and can substitute for its natural aphid prey [Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach)]. The biological cycle of C. maculata was faster and the immature stages suffered a lower rate of mortality when fed D. melanogaster larvae rather than when fed L. erysimi. The factitious prey resulted in improved reproductive attributes for C. maculata, with the exception of fecundity. The N content was the same for both prey types, but the dipteran larvae had a higher C content, water content and C:N ratio than the aphids. The conclusion of this study is that D. melanogaster larvae are adequate factitious prey for the development and reproduction of C. maculata under laboratory conditions.

Keywords

Coccinellidae Drosophilidae Alternative prey Food quality Immature stage fitness Adult fitness 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—Brasil (CAPES), for the master of science scholarships awarded to the first and second authors, and the laboratory technician Caroline Rosa Cabral Ferreira for maintaining our C. maculata and D. melanogaster colonies. Thanks to Prof Aurino Florencio de Lima (Entomology and Phytopathology Department, UFRRJ, Seropédica, RJ, Brazil) for identifying the aphid. Additionally, we thank Dr Robert M. Boddey (Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica, RJ, Brazil) for the use of the C:N soil analyzer and for helping us interpret the data. This study was financed in part by CAPES—Finance Code 001.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that there is no conflict of interest in this work.

References

  1. Allen ML (2015) Greenhouse evaluation of neonate and adult applications of Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to control twospotted spider mite infestations. Fla Entomol 98:714–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Attallah YH, Newson LD (1966) Ecological and nutritional studies on Coleomegilla maculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). I. The development of an artificial diet and laboratory rearing technique. J Econ Entomol 59:1173–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bonte M, Samih MA, De Clercq P (2010) Development and reproduction of Adalia bipunctata on factitious and artificial foods. BioControl 55:485–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. D’Ávila VA, Aguiar-Menezes EL, Gonçalves-Esteves V, Mendonça CBF, Pereira RN, Santos TM (2016) Morphological characterization of pollens from three Apiaceae species and their ingestion by twelve-spotted lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Braz J Biol 76:796–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. D’Ávila VA, Aguiar-Menezes EL, Pereira RN, Gonçalves-Esteves V, Mendonça CBF, Melo SJ, Santos TM (2017) Effect of provision of apiaceous flowers associated to foods on the biology of Coleomegilla maculata. Phytoparasitica 45:471–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Clercq P (2008) Culture of natural enemies on factitious foods and artificial diets. In: Capinera JL (ed) Encyclopedia of entomology, 2nd edn. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1133–1336Google Scholar
  7. Farag NA, El-Wahab TE, Abdel-Moniem ASH (2011) The influence of some honeybee products as a diet substitute on the different stages of Coccinella undecimpunctata L. in Egypt. Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot 44:253–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ferreira DF (2011) Sisvar: a computer statistical analysis system. Ciênc Agrotec 35:1039–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Finlayson C, Alyokhin A, Gross S, Porter E (2010) Differential consumption of four aphid species by four lady beetle species. J Insect Sci 10:31.  https://doi.org/10.1673/031.010.3101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gordon RD (1978) West Indian Coccinellidae II (Coleoptera): some scale predators with key to genera and species. Coleopt Bull 32:205–218Google Scholar
  11. Grenier S (2012) Artificial rearing of entomophagous insects, with emphasis on nutrition and parasitoids—general outlines from personal experience. Karaelmas Fen Müh Derg 2:1–12Google Scholar
  12. Guroo MA, Pervez A, Srivastava K, Gupta RK (2017) Effect of nutritious and toxic prey on food preference of a predaceous ladybird, Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Eur J Entomol 114:400–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Harwood JD, Obrycki JJ (2005) The role of alternative prey in sustaining predator populations. In: Hoddle MS (ed) Second international symposium on biological control of arthropods. USDA Forest Service, Morgantown, pp 453–462Google Scholar
  14. Hazzard RV, Ferro DN, van Driesche RG, Tuttle AF (1991) Mortality of eggs of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from predation by Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Environ Entomol 20:841–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hodek I (1967) Bionomics and ecology of predaceous Coccinellidae. Annu Rev Entomol 12:79–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoffmann MP, Fordsham AC (1993) Natural enemies of vegetable insect pests. Cornell Cooperative Extension, Cornell University, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  17. Hukusima S, Kamei M (1970) Effects of various species of aphids as food on development, fecundity and longevity of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Res Bull Fac Agric 29:53–66Google Scholar
  18. Iperti G (1999) Biodiversity of predaceous Coccinellidae in relation to bioindication and economic importance. Agric Ecosyst Environ 74:323–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jalali MA, Tirry L, De Clercq P (2009) Food consumption and immature growth of Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on a natural prey and a factitious food. Eur J Entomol 106:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Josyln MA (1970) Methods in food analysis: physical, chemical, and instrumental methods of analysis. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Lima MS, Melo JWS, Barros R (2017) Alternative food sources for the ladybird Brumoides foudrasii (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Braz J Biol.  https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.02816 Google Scholar
  22. Lucas E, Labrecque C, Coderre D (2004) Delphastus catalinae and Coleomegilla maculata lengi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as biological control agents of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Pest Manag Sci 60:1073–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mariotti F, Tome D, Mirand PP (2008) Converting nitrogen into protein-beyond 6.25 and Jones’ factors. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 48:177–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Michaud JP (2000) Development and reproduction of ladybeetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on the citrus aphids Aphis spiraecola Patch and Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Biol Control 18:287–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Michaud JP (2005) On the assessment of prey suitability in aphidophagous Coccinellidae. Eur J Entomol 102:385–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Michaud JP, Grant AK (2005) Suitability of pollen sources for the development and reproduction of Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) under simulated drought conditions. Biol Control 32:363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Michaud JP, Jyoti JL (2008) Dietary complementation across life stages in the polyphagous lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata. Entomol Exp Appl 126:40–45Google Scholar
  28. Michaud JP, Olsen LE (2004) Suitability of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, as prey for ladybeetles. BioControl 49:417–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moser SE, Kajita Y, Harwood JD, Obrycki JJ (2011) Evidence for utilization of Diptera in the diet of field-collected coccinellid larvae from an antibody-based detection system. Biol Control 58:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Munyaneza J, Obrycki JJ (1998) Development of three populations of Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding on eggs of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Environ Entomol 27:117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Neves MCP, Guerra JGM, Carvalho SR, Ribeiro RLD, Almeida DL (2005) Sistema integrado de produção agroecológico ou Fazendinha Agroecológica do km 47. In: Aquino AM, Assis RL (eds) Agroecologia: princípios e técnicas para uma agricultura orgânica sustentável. Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, Brasília, pp 147–172Google Scholar
  32. Nguyen DT, Vangansbeke D, De Clercq P (2014) Artificial and factitious foods support the development and reproduction of the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii. Exp Appl Acarol 62:181–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nordlund DA, Greenberg SM (1994) Facilities and automation for the mass production of arthropod predator and parasitoids. Biocontrol News Inf 4:45–50Google Scholar
  34. Parra JRP (2009a) A evolução das dietas artificiais e suas interações em ciência e tecnologia. In: Panizzi AR, Parra JRP (eds) Bioecologia e nutrição de insetos: base para o manejo integrado de pragas. Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, Brasília, pp 91–174Google Scholar
  35. Parra JRP (2009b) Índices nutricionais para medir consumo e utilização de alimentos por insetos. In: Panizzi AR, Parra JRP (eds) Bioecologia e nutrição de insetos: base para o manejo integrado de pragas. Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, Brasília, pp 37–90Google Scholar
  36. Phoofolo MW, Obrycki JJ (1997) Comparative prey suitability of Ostrinia nubilalis eggs and Acyrthosiphon pisum for Coleomegilla maculata. Biol Control 9:167–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Phoofolo MW, Obrycki JJ, Lewis LC (2001) Quantitative assessment of biotic mortality factors of the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in field corn. J Econ Entomol 94:617–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Resende ALS, Silva EE, Silva VB, Ribeiro RLD, Guerra JGM, Aguiar-Menezes EL (2006) Primeiro registro de Lipaphis pseudobrassicae Davis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) e sua associação com insetos predadores, parasitóides e formigas em couve (Cruciferae) no Brasil. Neotrop Entomol 35:551–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Richards DR, Evans EW (1998) Reproductive responses of aphidophagous lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to nonaphid diets: an example from alfalfa. Ann Entomol Soc Am 91:632–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Riddick EW (2009) Benefits and limitations of factitious prey and artificial diets on life parameters of predatory beetles, bugs, and lacewings: a mini-review. BioControl 54:325–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Riddick EW, Wu Z (2015) Does a change from whole to powdered food (Artemia franciscana eggs) increase oviposition in the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata? Insects 6:815–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Riddick EW, Wu Z, Rojas MG (2014a) Potential utilization of Artemia franciscana eggs as food for Coleomegilla maculata. BioControl 59:575–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Riddick EW, Wu Z, Rojas MG (2014b) Is Tetranychus urticae suitable prey for development and reproduction of naïve Coleomegilla maculata? Insect Sci 21:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Seagraves MP, Yeargan KV (2009) Importance of predation by Coleomegilla maculata larvae in the natural control of the corn earworm in sweet corn. Biocontrol Sci Technol 19:1067–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sighinolfi L, Febvay G, Dindo ML, Rey M, Pageaux J, Baronio P, Grenier S (2008) Biological and biochemical characteristics for quality control of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) reared on a liver-based diet. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 68:26–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Silva AP, Mendes PP (2006) Utilização da artêmia nacional como dieta para pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) na fase berçário. Acta Sci Anim Sci 28:345–351Google Scholar
  47. Silva RB, Cruz I, Figueiredo MLC, Tavares MS (2010) Development of Coleomegilla maculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with prey and artificial diet. Rev Bras Milho e Sorgo 9:13–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Singh P (1982) The rearing of beneficial insects. N Z Entomol 7:304–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Smith BC (1960) A technique for rearing some coccinellid beetles on dry foods, and influence of various pollens on the development Coleomegilla maculata lengi Tim. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Can J Zool 38:1047–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Specty O, Febvay G, Grenier S, Delobel B, Piotte C, Pageaux J-F, Ferran A, Guillaud J (2003) Nutritional plasticity of the predatory ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): comparison between natural and substitution prey. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 52:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sullivan ML, Zhang Y, Bonner TH (2014) Carbon and nitrogen ratios of aquatic and terrestrial prey for freshwater fishes. J Freshw Ecol 29:259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sun Y-X, Hao Y-N, Riddick EW, Liu T-X (2017) Factitious prey and artificial diets for predatory lady beetles: current situation, obstacles, and approaches for improvement: a review. Biocontrol Sci Technol 27:601–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Triltsch H (1999) Food remains in the gut of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) adults and larvae. Eur J Entomol 96:355–364Google Scholar
  54. Vandekerkhove B, Parmentier L, van Stappen G, Grenier S, Febvay G, Rey M, De Clercq P (2009) Artemia cysts as an alternative food for the predatory bug Macrolophus pygmaeus. J Appl Entomol 133:133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Vangansbeke D, Nguyen DT, Audenaert J, Verhoeven R, Gobin B, Tirry L, De Clercq P (2014) Performance of the predatory mite Amblydromalus limonicus on factitious foods. BioControl 59:67–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wright EJ, Laing JE (1980) Numerical response of coccinellids to aphids in corn in southern Ontario. Can Entomol 112:977–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fitossanidade e Biotecnologia Aplicada (PPGFBA), Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da SaúdeUniversidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro – UFRRJSeropédicaBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Entomologia e FitopatologiaUniversidade Federal Rural do Rio de JaneiroSeropédicaBrazil
  3. 3.Embrapa AgrobiologiaSeropédicaBrazil

Personalised recommendations