, Volume 63, Issue 2, pp 241–252 | Cite as

Life cycle of Harmonia axyridis in central Europe

  • A. Honek
  • Z. Martinkova
  • A. F. G. Dixon
  • J. SkuhrovecEmail author
  • H. E. Roy
  • M. Brabec
  • S. Pekar


The development and reproduction, and maximum number of generations across seasons were ascertained for populations of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Central Europe. Number of generations was calculated using the thermal characteristics of development and summation of daily average air temperatures, in 2007–2016. This species can produce 2–3 generations per year. However, there is insufficient time for it to achieve its full reproductive potential. Delayed emigration from hibernacula (late April) shortened the period of seasonal activity by 1–6%. Breeding occurred from May to mid September. Oviposition continued into late summer, which left insufficient time for the late-hatching immatures to complete their development before the onset of winter. A high mobility, opportunistic use of prey patches and weak tendency to enter dormancy provide the potential for population increase by extending the period of development of immatures at the risk of failure if the cold period comes early.


Coccinellidae Development Generation Temperature Voltinism 



A.H., Z.M. and J.S. were supported by Grant No. 17-06763S of the Czech Science Foundation and grant from the Czech Ministry of Agriculture (Mze ČR) RO0416, M.B. by the long-term strategic development financing of the Institute of Computer Science (Czech Republic RVO 67985807), A.F.G.D. by Grant No. CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0073 of the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic, HER by the Natural Environment Research Council in partnership with the Joint Nature Conservation Committee and COST Action TD1209 ALIEN Challenge. We thank Mrs. Jana Kohoutová and Mrs. Helena Uhlířová for excellent technical assistance.


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Copyright information

© International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Crop Research InstitutePrague 6, RuzynĕCzech Republic
  2. 2.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of East AngliaNorwichUK
  3. 3.Centre for Ecology and HydrologyWallingfordUK
  4. 4.Department of Nonlinear ModelingInstitute of Computer Science AS CRPragueCzech Republic
  5. 5.Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of ScienceMasaryk UniversityBrnoCzech Republic

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