Efficacy of Trichoderma longibrachiatum in the control of Heterodera avenae
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Trichoderma longibrachiatum can be used for the control of Heterodera avenae in crops, but the effectiveness and possible mechanisms are unknown. Here we determined the efficacy and the mechanism responsible for the nematode control in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seedlings inoculated with T. longibrachiatum at the concentrations from 1.5 × 104 to 1.5 × 108 spores ml−1 significantly increased plant height, root length, and plant biomass; decreased H. avenae infection in both rhizospheric soil and roots; and enhanced chlorophyll content, root activity, and the specific activities of resistance-related enzymes (peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase), compared to the control. Those reactions occurred soon after T. longibrachiatum inoculation and the effect reached the maximum 7–9 days after inoculation. Promoting competitive plant growth and inducing enzyme-trigged resistance serve as the main mechanism responsible for T. longibrachiatum against H. avenae. T. longibrachiatum can be considered an effective biocontrol agent against H. avenae in wheat.
KeywordsTrichoderma longibrachiatum Heterodera avenae Biological control Phenylalanine ammonia lyase Polyphenol oxidase Peroxidase
This work was supported by Plant Protection Department of Gansu Agricultural University; Key Laboratory of Grassland Ecosystems, the Ministry of Education of China; Sino-U.S. Centers for Grazingland Ecosystems Sustainability; Gansu Hall of Province Farming Herd Biology Technology and Project of Education Department of Gansu Province; Grassland ecological System of Ministry of Education Ministry Key Laboratory Project (CY-GG-2006-013); Gansu Hall of Province Farming Herd Biology Technology (GNSW-2009-04) and Project of Education Department of Gansu Province (042-03).
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