Toxicity of pesticides to Tamarixia radiata, a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid
Sixteen pesticides including two fungicides were evaluated for toxicity to adult Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Percentage mortality data were evaluated to generally assess IPM-compatibility of the pesticides with adult parasitoids. The following were found to be least compatible with (most toxic to) adult T. radiata based on the toxicity of direct sprays and potential long residual life on leaves: carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and fenpropathrin. Although highly toxic to the parasitoid as direct sprays or freshly dried residues, each of the following was more compatible with T. radiata because the toxicity of residues of these pesticides was either low at one to three days after application or relatively non-persistent: abamectin, chenopodium oil, fenpyroximate, and spirotetramat. Depending on environmental conditions, imidacloprid (foliar-applied), phosmet, pyridaben, sulfur and 435 spray oil might also be somewhat more compatible for the same reasons. The pesticides that consistently appeared to be most compatible with T. radiata were aluminum tris, copper hydroxide, diflubenzuron, and kaolin clay (Surround WP).
KeywordsBiological control Citrus greening disease Eulophidae Huanglongbing Hymenoptera Diaphorina citri Asian citrus psyllid
The authors thank Matt Hentz, Kathy Moulton, and Anthea Diamondis (USDA-ARS) for their invaluable assistance during this research. Daniel Flores (USDA-APHIS) critically reviewed an early draft of the manuscript. This research was funded in-part by a grant from the Florida Citrus Production Research Advisory Committee. This article reports the results of research only. Mention of a trademark or proprietary product is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products that may also be suitable.
- Abbott W (1925) A method for computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol 18:265–267Google Scholar
- Barr NB, Hall DG, Weathersbee AA, Nguyen R, Stansly P, Qureshi JA, Flores D (2009) Comparison of laboratory colonies and field populations of Tamarixia radiata, an ecto-parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, using international transcribed spacer and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 DNA sequences. J Econ Entomol 102:2325–2332CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bové JM (2006) Huanglongbing: a destructive, newly-emerging, century-old disease of citrus. J Plant Pathol 88:7–37Google Scholar
- Chien CC (1995) The role of parasitoids in the pest management of citrus psyllid. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Research and Development of Citrus in Taiwan, Taichung, Taiwan, pp 245–261Google Scholar
- Chien CC, Chu YI (1996) Biological control of citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri in Taiwan. Biological Pest Control in Systems of Integrated Pest Management: 1996. Reprinted from Food and Fertilizer Technology Center Book Series No. 47, Taipei, Taiwan, pp 93–104Google Scholar
- Cocco A, Hoy MA (2008) Toxicity of organosilicone adjuvants and selected pesticides to the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Fla Entomol 91:610–620Google Scholar
- DeBach P (1979) Biological control by natural enemies. Cambridge University Press, New York, p 323Google Scholar
- Hoy MA, Nguyen R (2000) Classical biological control of Asian citrus psylla. Citrus Ind 81(12):48–50Google Scholar
- Hoy MA, Nguyen R, Jeyaprakash A (1999) Classical biological control of the Asian citrus psylla-release of Tamarixia radiata. Citrus Ind 80(9):20–22Google Scholar
- Rogers ME, Timmer LW (2007) Florida citrus pest management guide. University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Services. SP-43. Download at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/features/handbooks/CPMG.html
- SAS Institute (2008) SAS Procedures Guide, Version 9.1. SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USAGoogle Scholar