, Volume 55, Issue 4, pp 473–483 | Cite as

Effects of imidacloprid on the orientation behavior and parasitizing capacity of Anagrus nilaparvatae, an egg parasitoid of Nilaparvata lugens

  • Fang Liu
  • Shan W. Bao
  • Ying Song
  • Hai Y. Lu
  • Jian X. Xu


Anagrus nilaparvatae (Pang et Wang) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), is an egg parasitoid of rice planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae). This study evaluated effects of the insecticide imidacloprid on orientation behavior and parasitizing capacity of A. nilaparvatae. Sub-lethal concentrations of imidacloprid (LC20 and LC10) disrupted the foraging ability of A. nilaparvatae exposed to imidacloprid through contact or oral routes. Some survivors did not respond to volatiles from N. lugens-infested plants. Responsive individuals were equally attracted to volatiles from N. lugens-infested and healthy plants. Volatiles emitted from rice plants treated with a low concentration of imidacloprid were more attractive to A. nilaparvatae than those from plants treated with a high concentration of imidacloprid. Parasitism of N. lugens by A. nilaparvatae that survived contact with sub-lethal concentrations of imidacloprid did not decrease significantly. When A. nilaparvatae were fed imidacloprid-honey mixture, parasitism rates were 1.49% and 0%, respectively, significantly lower than those of the control (9.58%). Parasitism of N. lugens eggs in high concentration of imidacloprid treated rice plants by A. nilaparvatae decreased significantly. These effects involving disturbed foraging ability and reduced parasitizing capacity of A. nilaparvatae indicated that imidacloprid could decrease the performance of this parasitoid.


Mymaridae Anagrus nilaparvatae Imidacloprid Sub-lethal effect Indirect non-target effect Orientation behavior Parasitism Rice 



This research was financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30500329) and National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2010CB126200). We thank Dr. Y Hu of China National Rice Research Institute for revising the manuscript. We also thank Professor SL Gu for help with statistics. We are very grateful to two anonymous reviewers for most valubale comments improving the manuscript considerably.


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Copyright information

© International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fang Liu
    • 1
  • Shan W. Bao
    • 1
  • Ying Song
    • 1
  • Hai Y. Lu
    • 1
  • Jian X. Xu
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Horticulture and Plant ProtectionYangzhou UniversityYangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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