, Volume 55, Issue 4, pp 485–491 | Cite as

Development and reproduction of Adalia bipunctata on factitious and artificial foods

  • Maarten Bonte
  • Mohammad Amin Samih
  • Patrick De Clercq


The native coccinellid Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) may be an alternative to exotic species like Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) for the biological control of aphid pests in Europe. The availability of adequate factitious or artificial foods may help optimize its mass production. This study examines the nutritional value of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) eggs plus bee pollen, pea aphids Acyrthosiphum pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and mixtures of bee pollen and cysts of Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Branchiopoda: Artemiidae) and/or a lyophilized artificial diet based on bovine meat and liver. Reproducing adults of A. bipunctata were obtained on all diets tested, but immature survival, adult weights, development times and reproductive rates differed among diets. Over 84% of first instars fed on E. kuehniella eggs plus pollen or aphids survived to adulthood. Feeding predator larvae on pollen combined only with A. franciscana cysts or artificial diet yielded 40–55% immature survival, but survival increased to 74% when all of these components were mixed. Adult weights of A. bipunctata on the mixtures of pollen, A. franciscana cysts and/or artificial diet were 55–75% of those on aphids or on E. kuehniella eggs plus pollen. Lifetime fecundity was superior on E. kuehniella eggs plus pollen (1,864 eggs) to that on the other diets (264–889 eggs). The use of mixtures of plant and animal foods for A. bipunctata and other predators may contribute to increasing the cost-effectiveness of commercial mass production by reducing inputs of natural prey like aphids, or of nutritious but expensive factitious foods like lepidopteran eggs.


Adalia bipunctata Acyrtosiphon pisum Ephestia kuehniella Artemia franciscana Pollen Mass rearing 



This study was supported by project no. B/06836/01 from BOF-UGent.


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Copyright information

© International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maarten Bonte
    • 1
  • Mohammad Amin Samih
    • 2
  • Patrick De Clercq
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Agrozoology, Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Bioscience EngineeringGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Plant Protection, College of AgricultureVali e Asr UniversityRafsanjanIran

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