, 53:813 | Cite as

Combined field efficacy of Paranosema locustae and Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum for the control of sahelian grasshoppers

  • Agbeko Kodjo TounouEmail author
  • Christiann Kooyman
  • Ouro Kobi Douro-Kpindou
  • Hans Michael Poehling


Field trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of wheat bran bait formulations of Paranosema locustae and Metarhizium anisopliae for controlling grasshoppers in southeast Niger. Treatments consisted of wheat bran baits mixed with M. anisopliae, P. locustae + M. anisopliae or with P. locustae spores and P. locustae + sugar. Oedaleus senegalensis, Pyrgomorpha cognata and Acrotylus blondeli were the predominant species at the time of application representing ca. 94% of the total population. Bran application was done when O. senegalensis (ca. 75% of the population) was at its early developmental stages, with first, second and third instars accounting for 64–85%. Grasshopper population reduction, P. locustae prevalence and level of infections in the predominant species were monitored. Manual application of P. locustae and M. anisopliae formulated in wheat bran has proven to induce consistent pathogen infection in grasshopper populations. Population density over the three weeks monitoring, typically decreased by 44.7 ± 6.9%, 52.8 ± 8.4%, 73.7 ± 5.5% and 89.1 ± 1.8% in P. locustae, P. locustae + sugar, M. anisopliae and P. locustae + M. anisopliae treated plots respectively. Paranosema locustae prevalence in surviving adult grasshoppers at 28 after application was 48.1 ± 2.3%, 28.9 ± 4.8% and 27.4 ± 3.7%, with infection level of 6.2 ± 0.8 × 106, 2.3 ± 0.3 × 104 and 2.1 ± 0.3 × 103 spores mg−1 host weight in O. senegalensis, A blondeli and P. cognate respectively. Other species that each accounted for <2% of the community, namely Aiolopus thalassinus, A. simulatrix, Acorypha glaucopsis, Acrotylus patruelis, Anacridium melanorhodon, Diabolocatantops axillaris, Kraussaria angulifera and Schistocerca gregaria were found to show sign of infection. The results from this study suggest that wheat bran application of M. anisopliae and P. locustae alone or in combination, targeting early instars grasshopper could be a valuable option in grasshopper control programs.


Biological control Density reduction Disease prevalence Grasshoppers Metarhizium anisopliae Paranosema locustae 



This study was partly funded by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) in collaboration with the Leibniz University of Hanover (Germany). Authors are thankful to Prof. C. Borgemeister at ICIPE, Nairobi (Kenya) and Dr. J. Langewald at BASF Agrarzentrum, Limburgerhof (Germany) for their collaboration in this research work. We are grateful to Dr. D. Gnanvossou and K. Agboka at IITA Benin station and Dr. Mokpokpo Komi Fiaboe at IITA Uganda station for their critical review of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agbeko Kodjo Tounou
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Christiann Kooyman
    • 1
  • Ouro Kobi Douro-Kpindou
    • 1
  • Hans Michael Poehling
    • 2
  1. 1.International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)Biological Control Center for AfricaTri postal CotonouRepublic of Benin
  2. 2.Institute of Plant Diseases and Plant ProtectionUniversity of HanoverHanoverGermany

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